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CLIMATE Ambulance Chaser – Peter Hannam – Blames Houston’s Residents For Harvey!

FAILING Fairfax Media’s resident climate change catastrophist Peter Hannam is officially off his meds, blaming Houston’s residents for the weather!

HANNAM couldn’t even wait for Harvey and the flooding to subside, for residents to find dry land, before slapping them around as the “self-styled “world capital of the oil and gas industry”” – brutishly and falsely linking the fossil fuel industry to extreme weather events.

MEMO to Peter : There is NO evidence that the use of fossil fuels has had any effect on “extreme weather”. In fact, even the alarmist UN IPCC begrudgingly admitted in their last climate report (AR5) a level of “low confidence” that human greenhouse gas emissions have had any effect on extreme weather events.

IN the IPCC’s own words from their SREX report : “We Do Not Know If The Climate Is Becoming More Extreme”.

FURTHERMORE, Hurricane Harvey that made landfall in Texas as a category four, ended America’s record 4,324 day major hurricane drought.

BUT, climate facts like these don’t seem to sit well for the alarmist ‘journalists’ over at Fairfax…the one’s that still remain!

PETER, if you’d even bothered to google ‘Galveston Hurricane‘ before perversely smearing and sliming Texan residents, you might have found this piece of perspective via wikipedia:

Screen Shot 2017-08-29 at , August 29, 12.37.55 PM

On September 8, 1900, a Category 4 hurricane ripped through Galveston, Texas, killing an estimated 6,000 to 8,000 people. It is still North America’s worst natural disaster ever recorded.

 

HOW developed were the Texan oil fields 117 years ago, Peter?

 

See also : EXTREME WEATHER Expert: “World Is Presently In An Era Of Unusually Low Weather Disasters” | Climatism

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More via Herald Sun’s Andrew Bolt :

Sydney Morning Herald alarmist Peter Hannan stoops to a new low as floods hit Houston.

He treats weather as climate.

He ignores evidence that cyclones have actually got fewer over the past decades.

And he then blames the victims:

Yes, Houston, you do have a problem, and – as insensitive as it seems to bring it up just now – some of it is your own making…

Houston is facing worsening historic flooding in the coming days as Tropical Storm Harvey dumps rain on the city, swelling rivers to record levels.

But, as the self-styled “world capital of the oil and gas industry”, there’s a connection between rising global greenhouse gas levels and the extreme weather now being inflicted that some of your residents have understood for decades and had a hand in.

To see how deceitful this is, note these conclusions from the latest report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Note also that the IPCC is alarmist, prone to exaggeration, yet is forced to admit:

In summary, there continues to be a lack of evidence and thus low confidence regarding the sign of trend in the magnitude and/or frequency of floods on a global scale…

In summary, this assessment does not revise the SREX conclusion of low confidence that any reported long-term (centennial) increases in tropical cyclone activity are robust… In summary, confidence in large scale changes in the intensity of extreme extratropical cyclones since 1900 is low… Over periods of a century or more, evidence suggests slight decreases in the frequency of tropical cyclones making landfall in the North Atlantic and the South Pacific, once uncertainties in observing methods have been considered…

Callaghan and Power (2011) find a statistically significant decrease in Eastern Australia land-falling tropical cyclones since the late 19th century…

Changes in extremes for other climate variables are generally less coherent than those observed for temperature… Analyses of land areas with sufficient data indicate increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events in recent decades, but results vary strongly between regions and seasons. For instance, evidence is most compelling for increases in heavy precipitation in North America, Central America and Europe, but in some other regions—such as southern Australia and western Asia—there is evidence of decreases.

So there have actually been fewer cyclones or tropical storms like Harvey and little evidence of more floods. Yet Hannan seizes on one of the floods to regularly batter the US gulf coast and insists it’s caused by global warming.

What a snake oil salesman.

One of the world’s top climate scientists, Dr Roy Spencer, explains what Hannan won’t – that this cyclone was not the worst, the floods are not the highest, the deaths are not the greatest and the cause is not man-made:

The flood disaster unfolding in Houston is certainly very unusual. But so are other natural weather disasters, which have always occurred and always will occur…

Major floods are difficult to compare throughout history because the ways in which we alter the landscape. For example, as cities like Houston expand over the years, soil is covered up by roads, parking lots, and buildings, with water rapidly draining off rather than soaking into the soil. The population of Houston is now ten times what it was in the 1920s. The Houston metroplex area has expanded greatly and the water drainage is basically in the direction of downtown Houston.

There have been many flood disasters in the Houston area, even dating to the mid-1800s when the population was very low. In December of 1935 a massive flood occurred in the downtown area as the water level height measured at Buffalo Bayou in Houston topped out at 54.4 feet… By way of comparison, as of 6:30 a.m. this (Monday) morning, the water level in the same location is at 38 feet, which is still 16 feet lower than in 1935. I’m sure that will continue to rise.

Are the rainfall totals unprecedented?

Even that question is difficult to answer. The exact same tropical system moving at, say, 15 mph might have produced the same total amount of rain, but it would have been spread over a wide area, maybe many states, with no flooding disaster. This is usually what happens with landfalling hurricanes.

Instead, Harvey stalled after it came ashore and so all of the rain has been concentrated in a relatively small portion of Texas around the Houston area. In both cases, the atmosphere produced the same amount of rain, but where the rain lands is very different. People like those in the Houston area don’t want all of the rain to land on them.

There is no aspect of global warming theory that says rain systems are going to be moving slower, as we are seeing in Texas. This is just the luck of the draw. Sometimes weather systems stall, and that sucks if you are caught under one. The same is true of high pressure areas; when they stall, a drought results.

Even with the system stalling, the greatest multi-day rainfall total as of 3 9 a.m. this Monday morning is just over 30 39.7 inches, with many locations recording over 20 inches. We should recall that Tropical Storm Claudette in 1979 (a much smaller and weaker system than Harvey) produced a 43 inch rainfall total in only 24 hours in Houston.

Was Harvey unprecedented in intensity?

In this case, we didn’t have just a tropical storm like Claudette, but a major hurricane, which covered a much larger area with heavy rain. Roger Pielke Jr. has pointed out that the U.S. has had only four Category 4 (or stronger) hurricane strikes since 1970, but in about the same number of years preceding 1970 there were 14 strikes. So we can’t say that we are experiencing more intense hurricanes in recent decades.

Going back even earlier, a Category 4 hurricane struck Galveston in 1900, killing between 6,000 and 12,000 people. That was the greatest natural disaster in U.S. history.

And don’t forget, we just went through an unprecedented length of time – almost 12 years – without a major hurricane (Cat 3 or stronger) making landfall in the U.S.

So what makes this event unprecedented?

The National Weather Service has termed the event unfolding in the Houston area as unprecedented. I’m not sure why. I suspect in terms of damage and number of people affected, that will be the case. But the primary reason won’t be because this was an unprecedented meteorological event.

If we are talking about the 100 years or so that we have rainfall records, then it might be that southeast Texas hasn’t seen this much total rain fall over a fairly wide area. At this point it doesn’t look like any rain gage locations will break the record for total 24 hour rainfall in Texas, or possibly even for storm total rainfall, but to have so large an area having over 20 inches is very unusual…

Bill Read, a former director of the National Hurricane Center was asked by a CNN news anchor whether he thought that Harvey was made worse because of global warming. Read’s response was basically, No.

But Peter Hannan, paid alarmist, says yes, yes, yes.

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SNOW : Setting The Record Straight

SNOW - Climatism

SNOW


THE problem with lying or perpetuating a scam is that you have to be aware of the spin you’ve spun to get you there.

IN the realm of climate and weather, you pray to god (or Gaia) that the prognostications and rules, as laid out by the “97%” of ‘experts’, come to fruition or go close enough to bolster your position.

CLIMATE and weather outcomes vary greatly, depending on many factors, most of which we are yet to fully understand. Perhaps if ever, owing to the fact that “The climate system is a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible.” (IPCC TAR 2001)

WITH that in mind, it is feasible and encouraged to identify errors in predictions. From this we can identify uncertainty in order to sharpen hypothesis and curb costly hysteria.

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SNOW 

A good example of climate predictions gone awry is in the area of snow.

“97%” of venerated ‘scientific’ institutions in concert with the warmist mainstream media were predicting the end of snow…

IN 2000, climate expert Dr David Viner of the University of East Anglia’s Climate Research Unit (CRU) assured us that :

Snowfall will become “A very rare and exciting event…
Children just aren’t going to know what snow is.”
Dr David VinerSenior scientist, climatic research unit (CRU)

IN 2001, the UN IPCC predicted diminished snowfalls as human CO2 increased, claiming that “milder winter temperatures will decrease heavy snowstorms” due to the activities of mankind personkind…

THEY also forecast “warmer winters and fewer cold spells, because of climate change…”

warmer-winters-ipcc

warmer-winters-ipcc

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THE “97% of Experts” Agreed Too!

2000 : a prediction from Professor Mojib Latif of Germany’s GEOMAR Heimholtz Centre for Ocean Research…

“Winters with strong frosts and lots of snow like we had 20 years ago will no longer exist at our latitudes.” – Professor Mojib Latif

2004 : Mark Lynas told us

“Snow has become so rare that when it does fall – often just for a few hours – everything grinds to a halt. In early 2003 a ‘mighty’ five-centimetre snowfall in southeast England caused such severe traffic jams that many motorists had to stay in their cars overnight. Today’s kids are missing out . . . Many of these changes are already underway, but have been accelerating over the last two decades. Termites have already moved into southern England. Garden centres are beginning to stock exotic sub-tropical species, which only a few years ago would have been killed off by winter…” – Mark Lynas

2005 : George Monbiot on climate change and snow

Winter is no longer the great grey longing of my childhood. The freezes this country suffered in 1982 and 1963 are – unless the Gulf Stream stops – unlikely to recur. Our summers will be long and warm. Across most of the upper northern hemisphere, climate change, so far, has been kind to us…

2006 : The Independent‘s somber editorial admonished us that the lack of snow was evidence of a “dangerous seasonal disorder”…

The countryside is looking rather peculiar this winter. It seems we have a number of unexpected guests for Christmas. Dragonflies, bumblebees and red admiral butterflies, which would normally be killed off by the frost, can still be seen in some parts of the country . . . Some might be tempted to welcome this late blossoming of the natural world as a delightful diversion from the bleakness of this time of year. But these fluctuations should be cause for concern because it is overwhelmingly likely that they are a consequence of global warming . . . all this is also evidence that global warming is occurring at a faster rate than many imagined…

2007 : BBC “One Planet Special”…

It Seems the Winters of Our Youth are Unlikely to Return” presenter Richard Hollingham … speaks to climate scientists to get their views. Their conclusion? In the words of the BBC, they all give “predictions of warmer winters, for UK & the Northern Hemisphere”.

2007 : Western Mail (Wales Online) … article, entititled “Snowless Winters Forecast for Wales as World Warms Up” quotes one of the global warming movement’s key figures, Sir John Houghton, former head of the IPCC and former head of the UK Met Office…

Former head of the Met Office Sir John Houghton, who is one of the UK’s leading authorities on climate change, said all the indicators suggest snowy winters will become increasingly rare He said, “Snowlines are going up in altitude all over the world. The idea that we will get less snow is absolutely in line with what we expect from global warming.”

2008 : another prediction

A study of snowfall spanning 60 years has indicated that the Alps’s entire winter sports industry could grind to a halt through lack of snow…. In some years the amount that fell was 60 per cent lower than was typical in the early 1980s, said Christoph Marty, from the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research in Davos, who analysed the records. ”I don’t believe we will see the kind of snow conditions we have experienced in past decades,” he said.

2014 : the global warming theory-obsessed New York Times touted “The End of Snow?”…

The truth is, it is too late for all of that. Greening the ski industry is commendable, but it isn’t nearly enough. Nothing besides a national policy shift on how we create and consume energy will keep our mountains white in the winter — and slow global warming to a safe level. screenhunter_314-feb-07-11-00

This is no longer a scientific debate. It is scientific fact. The greatest fear of most climate scientists is continued complacency that leads to a series of natural climatic feedbacks…”

(Climatism bolds)

The End of Snow? – The New York Times

2017 : The Age’s resident global warming catastrophist Peter Hannam signalled the end of snow…

Australia’s ski resorts face the prospect of a long downhill run as a warming climate reduces snow depth, cover and duration. The industry’s ability to create artificial snow will also be challenged, scientists say.

Snowy retreat: Climate change puts Australia’s ski industry on a downhill slope | The AGE

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A 2003 CSIRO report, part-funded by the ski industry, found that resorts could lose a quarter of their snow within 15 years…

“For the first time, they realised that their attention should be directed to a common enemy,” says Andrew Fairley, head of the Alpine Resorts Co-ordinating Council, which advises the State Government and oversees the management of Victoria’s six snow resorts. “And that enemy is climate change.”

Like those who rely on the Great Barrier Reef, the Australian ski industry sees itself as a frontline victim of global warming. A 2003 CSIRO report, part-funded by the ski industry, found that the resorts could lose a quarter of their snow in 15 years, and half by 2050. The worst case was a 96 per cent loss of snow by mid-century.

Icons under threat: The Alps – General – In Depth – theage.com.au

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CSIRO – Simulations of future snow conditions in the Australian alpine regions

Conclusion:

The low impact scenario for 2020 has a minor impact on snow conditions. Average season lengths are reduced by around five days. Reductions in peak depths are usually less than 10%, but can be larger at lower sites (e.g. Mt Baw Baw and Wellington High Plains).

The high impact scenario for 2020 leads to reductions of 30-40 days in average season lengths. At higher sites such as Mt Hotham, this can represent reductions in season duration of about 25%, but at lower sites such as Mt Baw Baw the reduction can be more significant (up to 60%)…

We have very high confidence (at least 95%) that the low impact scenarios will be exceeded and the high impact scenarios will not be exceeded.

https://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/73212/TheImpactofClimateChangeonSnowConditions2003.pdf  (Page Not Found – hmm)

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DOES the CSIRO and “97% of all experts” still stand by their snowmageddon predictions? Or is their alarmist sophistry simply more global warming climate change fear-mongering based on dogma and/or overheated UN IPCC and CSIRO climate computer models?

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SNOW DATA

WINTER snow extent is increasing globally as CO2 emissions rise…

Read the rest of this entry »


DOES The CSIRO Still Stand By Its 2003 Snow Prediction?

Winter Forecast: Coldest On Record? CLIMATISM


“The problem isn’t that Johnny can’t read.
The problem isn’t even that Johnny can’t think.
The problem is that Johnny doesn’t know what thinking is;
he confuses it with feeling.”
– Thomas Sowell

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AUSTRALIA’S ‘premier’ science body, the CSIRO, is a prime example of a government funded agency who has been fatally captured by global warming groupthink and climate change hysteria, resulting in a litany of failed predictions and costly fear-mongering, thanks in part to their own contribution to the global set of overheated climate models.

AN example of the CSIRO’s fealty towards the Climate Crisis Industry can be seen in the use of sea level rise figures far in excess of even the IPCC…

In its 2012 report, State of the Climate, the CSIRO says that since 1993 sea levels have risen up to 10mm a year in the north and west. That means that somewhere has had a 19cm-rise in sea level since 1993. Where is this place? The European satellite says that sea levels have been constant for the past eight years.

CSIRO alarmism more dangerous than Co2 | The Australian

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CSIRO – The End Of Snow…

A 2003 CSIRO report, part-funded by the ski industry, found that resorts could lose a quarter of their snow within 15 years…

“For the first time, they realised that their attention should be directed to a common enemy,” says Andrew Fairley, head of the Alpine Resorts Co-ordinating Council, which advises the State Government and oversees the management of Victoria’s six snow resorts. “And that enemy is climate change.”

Like those who rely on the Great Barrier Reef, the Australian ski industry sees itself as a frontline victim of global warming. A 2003 CSIRO report, part-funded by the ski industry, found that the resorts could lose a quarter of their snow in 15 years, and half by 2050. The worst case was a 96 per cent loss of snow by mid-century.

Icons under threat: The Alps – General – In Depth – theage.com.au

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CSIRO – Simulations of future snow conditions in the Australian alpine regions

Conclusion:

The low impact scenario for 2020 has a minor impact on snow conditions. Average season lengths are reduced by around five days. Reductions in peak depths are usually less than 10%, but can be larger at lower sites (e.g. Mt Baw Baw and Wellington High Plains).

The high impact scenario for 2020 leads to reductions of 30-40 days in average season lengths. At higher sites such as Mt Hotham, this can represent reductions in season duration of about 25%, but at lower sites such as Mt Baw Baw the reduction can be more significant (up to 60%)…

We have very high confidence (at least 95%) that the low impact scenarios will be exceeded and the high impact scenarios will not be exceeded.

https://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/73212/TheImpactofClimateChangeonSnowConditions2003.pdf  (Page Not Found – hmm)

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ALL around the world, warmist institutions and the climate-theory-obsessed compliant mainstream media were once predicting the end of snow… Read the rest of this entry »


CHILLING Fact Is Most Climate Change Theories Are Wrong

Wheel-of-Climate-Change

GLOBAL warming alarmists want to change us, they want to change our behaviour, our way of life, our values and preferences. They want to restrict our freedom because they themselves believe they know what is good for us. They are not interested in climate or the environment. They misuse the climate in their goal to restrict our freedom. Therefore, what is in danger is freedom, not the climate.

FORMER head of Deutsche Bank, the ABC and ASX, Maurice Newman, writes a must read opinion piece in the The Australian providing further evidence that the “global warming movement is really the triumph of ideology over science”…


  • The Australian

You have to hand it to Peter Hannam, The Sydney Morning Herald’s climate change alarmist-in-chief, for his report last month – “ ‘Really ­extreme’ global weather event leaves scientists aghast”.

Hannam is often the ­canary in the coalmine (er, wind farm) when there is a sense that public belief in man-made global warming is flagging. With Europe in the grip of a much colder winter than predicted and with the ­abnormal chill spreading even to Africa, he did his best to hold the line.

Earlier this year, Climate Council councillor Will Steffen also climbed on board — for The Sydney Morning Herald of course. Extreme cold in Britain, Switzerland and Japan, a record-breaking cold snap in Canada and the US and an expansion of the East Antarctic ice sheet coincided with a ­Bureau of Meteorology tweet (later retracted) that January 7 had set a heat record for the ­Sydney Basin. Steffen told us these seemingly unrelated events were in fact linked. “Climate ­disruption” explained both. Whether fire or ice, we’re to blame. No ifs, no buts.

Now a warming Arctic provides the perfect opportunity for Hannam to divert attention from the latest deep freeze. He ominously warns: “Climate scientists are used to seeing the range of weather extremes stretched by global warming, but few episodes appear as remarkable as this week’s unusual heat over the Arctic.”

It’s true, warm air has made its way up to the high Arctic, driving temperatures up to 20C above ­average. But Anthony Watts, who runs a climate change website, puts things into perspective. He observes: “Warm moist air from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans has warmed the Arctic above the 80th parallel. It should be noted, however, that the Arctic Circle actually starts at 66 degrees north, meaning the record heat is over a much narrower area.”

Cato Institute atmospheric scientist Ryan Maue reviewed high Arctic temperature data going back to 1958 and says: “Data before the satellite era … has some problems, so it’s hard to say the current spike is for sure a record.” He says that if the baseline is 1973, when the polar-­orbiting satellites began recording the data, there is not much difference between today’s ice extent and then.

Indeed, we now have satellite confirmation that global air temperatures are back to the same level they were before the 2014-16 super El Nino event and, this January and February, the decline accelerated. Since 2015 satellites also have detected a fall in sea surface temperatures.

Solar expert Piers Corbyn, of British forecasting group Wea­therAction and famous for his successful wagers against the British Met Office forecasts, predicts Earth faces another mini ice age with potentially devastating consequences. He notes: “The frequency of sunspots is expected to rapidly decline … reaching a minimum between the years 2019 and 2020.” Indeed, the present decline in solar activity is faster than at any time in the past 9300 years, suggesting an end to the grand solar maximum.

Critics say while “it might be safe to go with (Corbyn’s) forecast for rain next Tuesday, it would be foolish to gamble the world can just go on burning all the coal and oil we want”. That’s the nub of it. The world has bet the shop on CO2 warming and the “science” must be defended at all costs.

But while spinning unfalsi­fiable “climate disruption” slogans may sway readers of The Sydney Morning Herald and resonate with believers in their centrally heated halls, those in the real world, witnessing hundreds of people dying of the cold and thousands more receiving emergency treatment, will consider they’ve been duped.

Not feeling duped are successive Australian governments that have become committed members of a green-left global warming movement promoted by the UN. On dubious scientific grounds they have agreed to accept meaningless, anti-growth, CO2 emission targets that enrich elites and burden the masses.

And, true to label, a Green Climate Fund supported by Australia and 42 mostly developed countries will redistribute $US100 billion ($128bn) annually to poorer nations as reparation for the unspecified environmental harm the West has allegedly caused them.

Big emitters such as China, India and Russia are conspicuously absent.

Policing Australia’s targets and helping to spread confirmatory propaganda is a network of international and local bureaucracies. The world’s academies and meteorological organisations, frequently found to be unreliable and biased, keep the faith alive. They reject debate and starve nonconforming researchers of funds and information. Students are indoctrinated with unproven climate-change theories that an unquestioning media gladly ­reinforces. Meanwhile, the country ingenuously surrenders its competitive advantage by refusing to embrace its rich endowment of affordable baseload energy. This it happily exports while lining the pockets of renewable energy rent-seekers with generous taxpayer subsidies.

Should the world enter a per­iod of global cooling, we should ­expect concerted denial. Too many livelihoods, too many reputations and too much ideology ­depend on the CO2 narrative. Having ceded sovereignty over our economies’ commanding heights to unelected bureaucrats in Geneva, the West (Donald Trump excluded) repeatedly turns to expensive vanity projects to paper over this folly. If the iceman cometh, there can be no quick fix. Yet we know it takes twice as much energy to heat a home than to cool one. So pity the poor and infirm who respected medical journal The Lancet says are 20 times likelier to die from cold than heat.

While even to mention a mini ice age risks scorn and derision, recent research has shown a close correlation between solar activity and climate on Earth. That possibility alone should cause shivers. But it will take time and experience before we accept the global warming movement is really the triumph of ideology over science. Until then we will continue to commit life’s cardinal sin of putting too many eggs into one questionable basket.

Chilling fact is most climate change theories are wrong | The Australian

(Climatism links and bolds added)

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(Still waiting for that “big oil” cheque to arrive in the mail!)

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CLAIM : World’s Coral Reefs Face New Peril From Beneath Within Decades

screen-shot-2018-02-24-at-5-30-30-am.png

WITH a stubborn atmosphere failing to warm as predicted, another climate threat was needed to sustain the Climate Crisis industry and keep lazy reporters supplied with junk science to feed their catastrophic climate narrative. Enter “ocean acidification”!

FROM the onset, the term “ocean acidification” was deceptive by design. Oceans are alkaline. The correct ‘scientific’ term for any pH change toward zero is “less alkaline”. Obviously not the scariest of descriptors to shock the public into belief.

“Ocean Acidification” was first referenced in a peer-reviewed study in Nature in 2003, resulting in an explosion of journal articles, media reports and alarmist publications from environmental orgs. It has since gone viral, endorsed by scientists from numerous alarmist institutions including the Royal Society, the IPCC and NOAA who coined it “climate change’s evil twin” in a 2016 report.

A 2016 paper published in the ICES Journal of Marine Science put the issue of “ocean acidification” under the microscope, and found Scientists exaggerating the carbon dioxide threat to marine life…

Applying organized scepticism to ocean acidification research

“Ocean acidification” (OA), a change in seawater chemistry driven by increased uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the oceans, has probably been the most-studied singlem_cover topic in marine science in recent times. The majority of the literature on OA report negative effects of CO2 on organisms and conclude that OA will be detrimental to marine ecosystems. As is true across all of science, studies that report no effect of OA are typically more difficult to publish.

Excerpts from the paper:

Scientific or academic scepticism calls for critical scrutiny of research outputs before they are accepted as new knowledge (Merton, 1973).Duarte et al. (2014) stated that “…there is a perception that scientific skepticism has been abandoned or relaxed in many areas…” of marine science. They argue that OA is one such area, and conclude that there is, at best, weak evidence to support an OA-driven decline of calcifiers. Below, I raise some of the aspects of OA research to which I contend an insufficient level of organized scepticism has been applied (in some cases, also to the articles in this theme issue). I arrived at that conclusion after reading hundreds of articles on OA (including, to be fair, some that also raise these issues) and overseeing the peer-review process for the very large number of submissions to this themed issue. Importantly, and as Duarte et al. (2014) make clear, a retrospective application of scientific scepticism such as the one that follows could—and should—be applied to any piece of/body of research.

(Climatism bolds)

Applying organized scepticism to ocean acidification research | ICES Journal of Marine Science | Oxford Academic 

From an article in The Times:

An “inherent bias” in scientific journals in favour of more calamitous predictions has excluded research showing that marine creatures are not damaged by ocean acidification, which is caused by the sea absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

It has been dubbed the “evil twin of climate change” and hundreds of studies have claimed to show that it destroys coral reefs and other marine life by making it harder for them to develop shells or skeletons.

The review found that many studies had used flawed methods, subjecting marine creatures to sudden increases in carbon dioxide that would never be experienced in real life.

Dr Browman, who is also principal research scientist at the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research, found there had been huge increase in articles on ocean acidification in recent years, rising from five in 2005 to 600 last year.

He said that a handful of influential scientific journals and lobbying by international organisations had turned ocean acidification into a major issue.

“Such journals tend to publish doom and gloom stories . . . stated without equivocation,” he said. The bias in favour of doom-laden articles was partly the result of pressure on scientists to produce eye-catching work, he added.

“You won’t get a job unless you publish an article that is viewed as of significant importance to society. People often forget that scientists are people and have the same pressures on them and the same kind of human foibles. Some are driven by different things. They want to be prominent.”

(Climatism bolds)

Scientists‘ are exaggerating carbon threat to marine life | The Times


ENTER climate alarmist in chief – Peter Hannam – Environment Editor at The Sydney Morning Herald / The Age, with his latest doomsday report peppered with the same old regurgitated buzz lines designed to scare you into belief; “tipping points”, “pressure on governments globally to act”, “catastrophic destruction”, “mass bleaching”…

World’s coral reefs face new peril from beneath within decades

New research, published in the journal Science on Friday, has found the sediments on which many reefs are built are 10 times more sensitive to the acidifying oceans than the living corals themselves. Some reef bases are already dissolving.

—–

“Coral reef sediments around the world will trend towards dissolving when seawater reaches a tipping point in acidity – which is likely to occur well before the end of the century,” he said.

ed14c7c8eccb6662b1b00e4f3ad42cde77b59285.jpg

Not loving it enough: coral reefs face multiple threats from climate change, including as it turns out, from below.

At risk will be coral reef ecosystems that support tourism, fisheries and the many other human activities, he said.

The ocean’s acidity has increased about 30 per cent since the start of the industrial revolution, as seas absorb about one-third of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

“It is vital that we put pressure on governments globally to act in concert to lower carbon dioxide emissions as this is the only way we can stop the oceans acidifying and dissolving our reefs,” Professor Eyre said.

Full article…

World’s coral reefs face new peril from beneath within decades | The Age

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Notwithstanding the evidence owing to the inherent alarmism, exaggeration and journal bias of the OA scare, it might be useful for Hannam to consider this simple explanation of what goes on “beneath” the ocean surface…

Corals evolved during the Cambrian era with CO2 levels at 6,000-7,000 ppm, around 4,000% or 20 times higher than today’s “CO2-starved” environment of 400 ppm. Atmospheric and ocean temps were also far higher than today. Corals are made of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) – and could not exist without substantial amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.

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A sound explanation of the fallacy of ‘Ocean Acidification’ …

via JoanneNova.com.au

Thirdly, you raise the specter of what you bizarrely call ocean “acidification”.

The last time I looked, the oceans were pronouncedly alkaline, and even the mad IPCC says the acid-base balance has been altered by only 0.1 acid/base units in the direction of slightly reduced alkalinity. However, that estimate, like much else in the IPCC’s mad gospels, is entirely guesswork, because there is no sufficiently well-resolved global measurement program for ocean pH. However, elementary theoretical considerations would lead us to expect homoeostasis in the acid/base balance of the oceans because the buffering influence of the rock basins in which they live and move and have their being is overwhelmingly powerful. Acid/base neutrality is at a pH of 7.0. The oceans are at about 7.8-8.2 (no one knows, so that the IPCC’s alleged dealkalinization of 0.1 acid/base units is well within the measurement error, so that we cannot actually be sure that it has occurred at all; and, on the elementary ground I have described, it is unlikely to have done so). Besides, there is about 50 times as much CO2 already dissolved in the oceans than there is in the atmosphere, so that even if all of the CO2 in the atmosphere were to make its way into the oceans the pH would scarcely change even in the absence of the overwhelming buffering effect of the rocks. As for calcifying organisms, they are thriving. The calcite corals first achieved algal symbiosis and came into being 550 million years ago (you are too young to remember) during the Cambrian era, when atmospheric CO2 concentration was 25 times what it is today. The more delicate aragonite corals came into being 175 million years ago, during the Jurassic, when CO2 concentration was still 15 times today’s. “Ah,” you may say, “but it is the suddenness of the abrupt increase in CO2 concentration that the fragile corals will not be able to endure.” However, consider the great floods of the Brisbane River (eight of them from 1840-1900 and three of them since). The rainwater that pours into the ocean and meets the Great Barrier Reef is pronouncedly acid, at a pH of 5.4. Yet the corals do not curl up and die. “Ah,” you may say, “but what about the effect of sudden warming on the puir wee corals?” Well, the Great el Nino of 1997/8 gives us the answer to that one. Sudden increases in ocean temperature cause the corals to bleach. There have been two previous Great el Ninos in the past 300 years, and the corals bleached on both those occasions too. It is a natural defense mechanism against natural change. The corals continue to thrive. My brother and his three sport-mad boys dive on the reef every year and, like many others from whom I have heard, find the corals thriving except where the Crown of Thorns infestation has damaged small parts of the reef. Oh, and the Great Barrier Reef Authority, which has been moaning about the effects of rising sea temperatures on the corals, publish a dataset that shows zero increase in sea temperature in the region of the reef throughout the entire period of record. Don’t hold your breath worrying about ocean “acidification”: it can’t happen, even if all the CO2 in the air goes into the ocean.

Must See Also : Ocean Acidification is a Misnomer | Hawaii Reporter

OA SCIENCE

The Multiple Impacts of “Ocean Acidification” on a Tropical Coral


Reference
Takahashi, A. and Kurihara, H. 2013. Ocean acidification does not affect the physiology of the tropical coralAcropora digitifera during a 5-week experiment. Coral Reefs 32: 305-314.

Background
The authors write that “according to the IPCC (2007) models, atmospheric CO2 is predicted to rise to 540-970 ppm by the end of this century and reach a maximum of approximately 1,900 ppm when the world’s fossil fuel reserves are fully exploited,” while noting that “a substantial number of laboratory studies have suggested a decline in coral calcification with a rise in seawater pCO2.” However, they say that recentstudies “have postulated that the sensitivity of corals to elevated levels of CO2 is potentially more diverse than previously considered,” citing the works of Fabricius et al. (2011), Pandolfi et al. (2011) and Rodolfo-Metalpa et al. (2011).

What was done
Intrigued by these new and diverse findings, Takahashi and Kurihara measured the rates of calcification, respiration and photosynthesis of the tropical coral Acropora digitifera – along with the coral’s zooxanthellae density – under near-natural summertime temperature and sunlight conditions for a period of five weeks.

What was learned
The two Japanese researchers found that these “key physiological parameters” were not affected by either predicted mid-range CO2 concentrations (pCO2 = 744 ppm, pH = 7.97, Ωarag = 2.6) or by high CO2concentrations (pCO2 = 2,142 ppm, pH = 7.56, Ωarag = 1.1) over the 35-day period of their experiment. In addition, they state that there was “no significant correlation between calcification rate and seawater aragonite saturation (Ωarag)” and “no evidence of CO2 impact on bleaching.”

What it means
Contrary to what many climate alarmists have long contended, there is mounting evidence that suggests that the negative consequences they predict for the world’s marine life in a future high-CO2 world are by no means assured, nor are they likely to be widespread. Keep Reading »

Source: CO2 Science

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TOP footnote by Dellers

In the last decade or so, the climate change industry has become so vast and all encompassing, employing so many people, it simply cannot be allowed to fail.

According to a report last year by Climate Change Business Journal, it’s now worth an astonishing $1.5 trillion — about the same as the online shopping industry. If the scare goes away, then all bets are off, because the entire global decarbonisation business relies on it. The wind parks, the carbon sequestration projects, the solar farms, the biomass plantations — none of these green schemes make any kind of commercial sense unless you buy into the theory that anthropogenic CO2 is catastrophically warming the planet and that radical green measures, enforced by governmental regulation, must be adopted to avert it.

It’s no coincidence that the ocean acidification narrative began in the early 2000s — just as it was beginning to dawn on the climate alarmists that global temperatures weren’t going to plan. While CO2 levels were continuing to rise, temperatures weren’t. Hence the need for a fallback position — an environmental theory which would justify the massively expensive and disruptive ongoing decarbonisation programme so assiduously championed by politicians, scientists, green campaigners and anyone making money out of the renewables business. Ocean acidification fitted the bill perfectly.

Ocean acidification: yet another wobbly pillar of climate alarmism | The Spectator

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GALVESTON 1900 : Hurricane Memo To The Climate Crisis Industry

Galveston8

ON this day September 8, 1900, Galveston—a low-elevation sand island just off Texas’s Gulf coast—was struck by a category 4 hurricane that decimated the island and killed thousands of people, making it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.

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117 years later, today, one of the biggest Hurricanes ever recorded in Atlantic history is busy ravaging the Caribbean, on its way to mainland USA…

LIVE FOOTAGE As Hurricane Irma Destroys St Maarten Beach Cam | Climatism

THOUGHTS and prayers to those already affected by #Irma and stay safe those within its destructive path.

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BUT, to the opportunistic climate ambulance chasers who don’t hesitate to attribute weather events like “Harvey” and “Irma” to ‘evil’ mankind – a brief hurricane history lesson to help ease the self-loathing…

CONSIDER the following Hurricane events recorded since pre-colonial times, when the climate was “perfect” and CO2 was at “safe” levels:

To give you an idea of the strength and devastation associated with these storms, below is a listing of some of the most memorable hurricanes since pre-colonial times. While the number of casualties from these storms have gone down over the years, the cost from the damage caused by these storms have risen tremendously. That has resulted from more building along the coastline, and more expensive homes and businesses.

    • Hurricane of July, 1502–Was a storm that the great explorer and discoverer of American, Christopher Columbus, predicted would strike the island of Hispanola. He used his prediction to warn the Governor of Hispanola, Nicholas de Ovando, who had 30 ships in his fleet set sail back to Spain. However, the governor ignored him, and refused Columbus’ request to stay in port at Santo Domingo. Within two days the storm struck in the Mona Passage between Hispanola and Puerto Rico, and sank 21 of the 30 ships, and killed approximately 500 sailors.

    • Tempest of 1609–At the time that the first ever colony in the United States was being developed, a strong hurricane menaced the Western Atlantic in the weeks following the departure of a fleet with 500 colonists left Great Britain for the New World. The ships then met with the maelstrom head on, and scattering all the vessels. Most were able to survive the onslaught of Mother Nature except for the flagship of the fleet, the Sea Venture, which was deposited in the infamous “Isle of Devils.” Nevertheless, those who were on the ship still managed to reach shore, and received a much better fate than those, who had already situated themselves in the colony. The story of the Sea Venture was the basis of William Shakespeare’s play, The Tempest.

    • Colonial Hurricane of 1635–Was a powerful New England hurricane that struck the Massachussetts Bay Colony in 1635 some fifteen years after the Mayflower struck land at Plymouth Rock. This storm had reminded many of the pilgrims and settlers of past hurricanes that struck in the West Indies or Caribbean. Many of the pilgrims believed that this storm was apocalyptic.

    • 1667–The Year Of The Hurricane–At a time when the Mid-Atlantic states of North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland agreed to temporarily halt production of tobacco, a strong hurricane ripped through the Mid-Atlantic region on August 27th. While there was no recorded statistics such as where the storm made landfall, its track, and its forward speed and intensity. It destroyed 80 percent of the tobacco and corn while destroying some 15,000 homes in Virginia and Maryland.

    • Accomack Storm of October 1693–This storm was captured by Mr. Scarburgh at his residence in Virginia’s Eastern Shore. Described by many weather record keepers as a very powerful storm, the Accomack Storm “cut inlets as far north as Fire Island, near New York City.”

    • The Great Gust of 1724–According to Rick Schwartz’s book, “Hurricanes and the Mid-Atlantic States,” two hurricanes brought significant wind and rain to the Mid-Atlantic region in 1724. The first storm moved through the area around August 12th, and caused torrential rains and devastating winds. Less than a week later, another violent storm system came through on August 17th, 18th, and 19th with violent winds and rain. These two systems are among the most significant tropical storms to affect the Mid-Atlantic during the colonial period of the late 1600s and 1700s.

    • Hurricane of October, 1743–A storm that affected what would become the Northeastern United States and New England, brought gusty winds and rainy conditions as far as Philadelphia, and produced flooding in Boston. Central barometric pressure of the storm was measured to be 29.35 inches of Hg in Boston. This storm, which wasn’t particularly powerful, was memorable because it garnered the interest of future patriot and one of the founders of the United States, Benjamin Franklin, who believed the storm was coming in from Boston. However, it was going to Boston. Nevertheless, it began the long educational journey, which would be our understanding of hurricanes.

    • Hurricane of October, 1749–The storm was perhaps one of the strongest storm ever in the Mid-Atlantic. According to Rick Schwartz, the hurricane produced a huge tidal surge of 15 feet. Based upon that observation, many experts believe that this system was a Category Four on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It was responsible for creating Willoughby Spit, a small area of land near Norfolk that was inside the Chesapeake Bay.

    • The Great Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1769–This hurricane plagued the Mid-Atlantic coast from North Carolina up into the Chesapeake over the two days of September 7-8, 1769, and was probably one of the strongest storms in the Mid-Atlantic during the 18th Century. It made landfall near New Bern, North Carolina, and laid that town in ruin as tides rose 12 feet above normal. Most notably, it caused widespread damage to the Stratford Hall plantation, which belonged to the family of famous confederate General Robert E. Lee.

    • The Independence Hurricane of 1775–With the winds of revolution blowing about in the fledgling 13 colonies, Mother Nature had a wind that temporarily put a halt to those rebellious thoughts. A hurricane roared up the East Coast, and triggered one of the early Revolutionary War skirmishes in the biggest colony of Virginia. It came close to impacting Georgia and South Carolina on September 2nd before moving ashore over North Carolina. The storm then picked up steam through Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. One of the more notable casualties of the storm was the roof of the Maryland State House, which was replaced by a wind resistant dome.

    • Great Hurricane of 1780–This storm was one of several that year, which was one of the worst hurricane seasons in the era prior to record taking. Winds were estimated to be Category Four strength at 135 mph. This storm, which affected the Southern Windward Islands including Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Martinique, St. Eustatius, and near Puerto Rico and Grand Turk Island, is believed to have killed approximately 22,000 people. Of that total, between 4,000 and 5,000 people were killed on St. Eustatius. Martinique had an estimated 9,000 people killed including 1,000 in St. Pierre, which had all of its homes destroyed.

    • The Great Coastal Hurricane of 1785–Hurricanes that occur within weeks of each other usually take parallel tracks. Take a look at hurricanes Katrina and Rita from 2005 for instance. The Atlantic Hurricane season of 1785 was a very busy one. One hurricane in early September of that year wrecked the ship called the Faithful Steward. Weeks later, another storm developed, and brushed the Delmarva Peninsula. The storm’s legacy was the creation of the “long-sought” lighthouse at Cape Henry, which was opened seven years later in 1792. Lighthouses were essential in preventing shipwrecks like the Faithful Steward, and another immigrant ship guided by shipmaster, Captain Smith.

    • George Washington’s Hurricane of 1788–This hurricane, which began its drive toward landfall after nearing Bermuda on July 19th, proceeded on a west-northwest course into the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and then into Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay region absorbed the worst that the storm had to offer. Most notably though, this storm is remembered for the way it was described by the father of the United States, and first president, George Washington. By the time the storm reached Washington’s home in Mount Vernon, it was likely to have been a moderate tropical storm with winds about 50 mph.

    • Hurricanes of 1795–Two hurricanes assaulted Virginia in August 1795, and destroyed the crops of another hero of the American Revolution, Thomas Jefferson. The two storms, which were ten days apart, caused the Appomattox River to crest more than 12 feet above flood stage at the city of Petersburg, which was the highest level reached in 70 years. Jefferson, who kept a perfect record of regular weather observations for 40 years between 1776 and 1816, recorded the devastation that the two storms left behind, especially the heavy losses that he suffered at his plantation, the famous Monticello.

    • Great Coastal Hurricane of 1806–The first major hurricane of the 19th Century made landfall south of the city of Wilmington on the southern shores of North Carolina on August 21st, and then proceeded on a gradual northeasterly drift for about 250 miles over the subsequent 36 hours. Constant gale force winds produced tremendous beach erosion, and “firmly established” the sandbar of Willoughby Spit at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay near Norfolk. It was also responsible for the loss of the ship, Rose-in-Bloom, which founded near Barnegat, New Jersey.

    • Great September Gale of 1815–Was the last hurricane to strike New England before the Long Island Express of 1938. The storm struck on September 23, 1815, and brought an 11 foot storm surge to Providence, which was the highest storm surge in the Rhode Island captial prior to the Great Hurricane of 1938, which had a 17.6 foot storm surge. This storm was the first hurricane to strike New England in exactly 180 years.

    • Cape May Hurricane of 1821–The last major hurricane to make a direct landfall in the Garden State of New Jersey. This storm, which was a Category Four Hurricane, struck Cape May, New Jersey on September 3, 1821, and had hurricane force winds go as far west as Philadelphia while folks in New Jersey experienced wind gusts of up to 200 mph. The storm cut a path of destruction that is similar to that of the Garden State Parkway. More detailed information on this hurricane is at Greg Hoffman’s Real Lousy Weather Page.

    • The Hurricane of 1846–Referred to as “The Great”, used its northeast quadrant that caused havoc on the Delaware all the way up to Camden, New Jersey. This storm revealed the fact that Delaware Bay is open to southeast winds in the right quadrant, and water in the Bay would go upriver into cities such as Wilmington, Philadelphia, and Camden.

    • The Last Island Hurricane of 1856–A monster hurricane struck the resort Louisiana island. The storm represented the beginning of the decline of the island for high society people in Louisiana. It only killed 284 people, but among those dead were prominent Louisiana officials of the time including the lieutenant governor, the speaker of the State house of representatives, and many others prominent in the political and social history of the State.

    • Hurricane of September, 1874–Struck the Carolinas around the end of September, 1874. This storm is remembered for being the first such hurricane to be shown on a weather map by the Weather Bureau. At the time it was shown, the hurricane was located off the Southeast Coast between Jacksonville, Florida and Savannah, Georgia.

    • Hurricane of September, 1875–Was an intense hurricane that struck the Southern Coast of Cuba as predicted by Father Benito Vines, who began to develop a tremendous reputation for accurately predicting when and where a hurricane would strike. His studies of tropical storms and hurricanes during the latter portion of the 19th Century made the Cuban forecasters some of the best hurricane forecasters in the world at the time.

    • The Centennial Gale–Striking during the year of the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, the Centennial Gale was a hurricane that stormed ashore in Swan Quarter on September 16th and 17th after killing hundreds of people in Puerto Rico. Also known to many as the San Felipe Hurricane.

    • The Great Tempest of 1879–One of the strongest east coast hurricanes of the 19th century, the storm slammed ahsore in Eastern North Carolina on August 18th. It produced wind gusts of 138 miles per hour at Cape Lookout with gusts up to 168 miles per hour. Wind instruments from Cape Lookout to Cape Hatteras to Cape Henry in Virginia are devastated.

    • Indianola Hurricane of 1886–Destroyed what had been the leading port city in Texas at the time on August 19-20, 1886. Indianola, which was located in Matagorda Bay, was hit by this storm, and another one a bit more than a month later. As a result, business that previously came into that port, moved up the coast to Galveston, which became the prominent port city in the Lone Star State until it was devastated by the Great Hurricane of 1900.

    • The Sabine Pass Storm of 1886–A storm devastated the Johnson’s Bayou settlement, and the Sabine Pass region near the Texas and Louisiana border killing about 150 people in Johnson’s Bayou and wiping Sabine Pass off the map.

    • Atlantic Hurricane of 1893–Was a strong Category One Hurricane that struck New York City with 90 mph winds on August 24th of that year. Barometric pressure was only 29.23 inches of Hg, but it leved some one hundred trees in Central Park. The beach and piers on Coney Island was devastated. However, it wasn’t as bad as Hog Island, a sand spit off Rockaway Beach that was wiped off the map.

    • Sea Islands Hurricane of 1893–A major hurricane of Category Three strength that made landfall in Savannah, Georgia on August 27th, but its northeast quadrant hammered Sea Islands in Beaufort County, South Carolina. As a result, approximately 2,000 to 2,500 people were killed and upwards of 30,000 people were left homeless.

    • Cheniere Caminada Hurricane of October 1893 –A devastating hurricane swept in from the Gulf and across this barrier island in Louisiana on October 2nd, and killed approximately 1,150 people in the fishing village of Caminadville. A total of nearly 1,700 people were lost in the storm altogether.

    • Galveston Hurricane of 1900–The deadliest natural disaster in United States History, this Category Four Hurricane moved through Cuba into the Gulf of Mexico before slamming ashore in Galveston, Texas on September 8, 1900 killing 6,000 people.

    • The “Hurricane” of 1903–The storm was indicated to be a hurricane by many in the media at the time, but it was in fact, a tropical storm with 70 mph winds along the coast. It was the first such tropical storm or hurricane to impact the Jersey shore in one hundred years. It was also called the “Vagabond Hurricane” since it caused such a stir in media outlets such as Philadelphia and New York, which had people covering the storm for the various newspapers in those cities.

    • Miami Hurricane of 1926–This storm hit at the worst possible time for the fledgling city. Incoporated in 1896 following the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway by Henry Flagler, the city of Miami was at the end of its first boom period early in 1926. The storm also served as a lesson for those wishing to go outside during the eye’s passage. Forming a few hundred miles to the East of the Lesser Antilles on September 12th, the storm passed to the north of Puerto Rico on September 15th. Accompanied by a late issued hurricane warning, the storm arrived in Miami on the morning of September 18th. Winds peaked at 128 mph, and the pressure in Miami fell to 27.61 inches of Hg, or 935 millibars. The storm surge ranged from eight to fifteen feet, and caused $150 million dollars in damage then, or $1.7 billion today. If a similar storm hit the Miami area today, it would cause an astronomical $87 billion in damage.

    • Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928–Carved a path of destruction throughout the Atlantic, and over the north shore of Lake Okeechobee during the period from September 6th to September 20th, 1928. This particular hurricane, which had a central pressure of 27.43 inches, was fifth all time to strike the United States in terms of intensity. It was responsible for an estimated 2,500 deaths, and some $25 million dollars in damage (equivalent to $300 million 1990 U.S. dollars). Now ranks behind Galveston as the second deadliest natural disaster in United States History.

    • Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1933–A powerful Cape Verde Storm that reached Category Four strength at one point before weakening to Category Two strength. The storm ended up striking on August 23, 1933 causing 79 million dollars in damage according to 1969 estimates, and left some 18 people dead. It also knocked out service to about 79,000 telephones as well as uprooted some 600 trees in Virginia Beach. The storm also set a record for storm surge with one that was 9.8 feet above normal in spots.

    • Major Hurricane of September, 1933–1933 was a very active year for tropical storms and hurricanes with 21 named storms, and 10 of them becoming hurricanes. In addition to the Great Chesapeake Hurricane of 1933, the Mid-Atlantic was hit by another hurricane almost exactly a month to the day later when a Category Three storm emerged from a disturbance in the Bahamas, and came up the coast to make landfall at Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The storm ended up causing about a fraction of the damage caused by the Chesapeake Bay storm. Only about 2,000 telephones were knocked out by the storm, and only two people died in Virginia.

    • Labor Day Hurricane of 1935–The most powerful hurricane to make landfall in the United States. A very small storm, this Category Five Hurricane tore through the Florida Keys with 180 mph winds, and a low pressure of 26.35 inches of Hg.

    • Long Island Express of 1938–A classic east coast hurricane, this Category Three storm moved rapidly from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina into New England in a matter of just six hours killing 600 people.

    • Great Hurricane of September, 1944–Is perhaps a forgotten storm in light of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, and the Long Island Express of 1938. However, this was a memorable storm in its own right. Cape Henry in Virginia was hit with sustained winds of 134 mph, and gusts up to 150 mph. Meanwhile, in Norfolk, winds reached close to hurricane force while gusts went up to 90 mph. The powerful storm caused tremendous damage along the coast from North Carolina to New England with some 41,000 buildings damaged, and a death toll of 390 people. The storm cost some $100 million dollars in damage including $25 million in New Jersey alone, where some 300 homes were destroyed on Long Beach Island. More detailed information on this hurricane is at Greg Hoffman’s Real Lousy Weather Page.

    • Hurricane Easy–Developing in September, 1950, Easy was perhaps one of the worst storms to hit Cedar Key since the late 1800s. This storm, which did a loop around the West Coast of Florida twice, had maximum sustained winds of 125 mph, a minimum pressure of 28.30 inches of Hg, and brought an amazing 38.7 inches of rain over two days to Yankeetown, Florida.

    • Hurricane King–Another powerful storm in 1950, this particular hurricane affected the Miami area in October of that year. It was a compact, but very powerful hurricane much like Hurricane Andrew. It only carved a path of destruction some 7 to 10 miles wide, but had wind gusts as high as 150 mph, minimum pressure of 28.20 inches of Hg., and a storm surge of 19.3 feet.

    • Hurricane Barbara–Opened up a decade of powerful storms to ravage the Carolinas in August, 1953. It struck the North Carolina coast between Morehead City and Ocracoke Island on August 13th, 1953 as a Category One Hurricane with gusts up to 90 mph, and left one dead and damages over $1 million in 1953 U.S. dollars.

    • Hurricane Carol–Opened up a very busy hurricane season for North Carolina in 1954 with a near miss of Cape Hatteras. Winds at Hatteras were between 90 and 100 mph, but minor damage estimated at $250,000 1953 U.S. dollars was left in the storm’s wake.

    • Hurricane Edna–Edna followed on the heels of Carol, and had a very similar track to Carol’s as it passed the Carolinas offshore on September 10, 1954. While the storm left minor damage and beach erosion for North Carolina, Edna ended up doing much more damage in New England after making landfall in Long Island. Damage estimates exceeded $40 million 1953 U.S. dollars, and 21 people were killed.

    • Hurricane Hazel–A Category Four Hurricane that came ashore in North Carolina in October, 1954, and then brought hurricane force winds as far inland as Canada. Passing 95 miles to the East of Charleston, South Carolina, Hazel made landfall very near the North Carolina and South Carolina border, and brought a record 18 foot storm surge at Calabash, North Carolina. Wind gusts of 150 mph were felt in Holden Beach, Calabash, and Little River Inlet 100 mph gusts were felt farther inland at Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, and New York. Hazel carved a path of destruction that left over 600 dead, and damages exceeded $350 million 1953 U.S. dollars.

    • Hurricane Connie–Was the first of three hurricanes to make landfall in the Carolinas in 1955. Some ten months after Hazel devastated the Tar Heel state, Connie made landfall over Cape Lookout, North Carolina on August 12, 1955. The storm produced heavy rains, tornadoes, and wind gusts up to 100 mph. The storm headed northward, and brought heavy rains in excess of 9 inches in Eastern Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey while dumping over 12 inches in portions of New York City.

    • Hurricane Diane–First billion dollar hurricane. Made landfall along the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and caused havoc from the Carolinas to New England in August 1955. Just five days after Connie, Diane came ashore on August 17th over Carolina Beach. At its peak, Diane produced winds of 125 mph, but at landfall winds were down 50 mph in Cape Hatteras while Wilmington had a gust of minimal hurricane force. Its flooding rains proved more devastating as they killed two hundred while establishing a new benchmark for damage. The havoc wreaked by Diane brought out Presidential Commission on Storm Modification that eventually led to Project Stormfury.

    • Hurricane Ione–Struck a month after Connie and Diane in September, 1955. The storm struck just west of Atlantic Beach along the North Carolina coast. This was another storm that made landfall well after it had peaked in intensity with 125 mph winds and a minimum central pressure of 27.70 inches. Nevertheless, it brought 16 inches of rainfall to parts of the Tar Heel state, and left six dead as well as $90 million in damages before curving out to sea.

    • Hurricane Helene–Perhaps one of the most powerful hurricanes during the 1950s not to make landfall in the Carolinas although it came very close. Helene came within 20 miles of the coast at Cape Fear on September 27, 1958. Winds still reached 135 mph at Wilmington while Southport, North Carolina had winds sustained at 125 mph with gusts between 150 and 160 mph, and a minimum central pressure of 27.75 inches.

    • Hurricane Donna–Had a very erratic path in the summer of 1960 that started in the Caribbean, then went to the Florida Keys, then into the Gulf of Mexico, where it would make a turn to the north and make a second landfall over Florida at Fort Myers. It continued northeastward across the Florida Peninsula, and moved back out into the Atlantic near Daytona Beach. Not done yet, Donna headed up the East Coast, and made another landfall at Topsail Island, North Carolina. It then finished its trip by heading into New England, and a final landfall across Long Island. At its peak, Donna had wind gusts ranging between 175 and 200 mph, a minimum central pressure of 27.46 inches, and a 13 foot storm surge. Its total damage cost was over one billion 1960 United States dollars while Donna left 50 people dead.

    • Hurricane Carla–Struck between the Port O’Connor and Port Lavaca area of Texas back in September, 1961. It was the most powerful storm to hit the Texas Coast in about 40 years. It winds were in excess of 150 mph, and gusts went up to 170 mph. Tides near Port Lavaca were 18.5 feet above normal, and the barometric pressure was 27.62 inches of Hg. Estimated damage from the storm was $408 million dollars while the death toll hit 43. Today, the cost would have been far greater.

    • Hurricane Hattie–Struck the then coastal capital of Belize, Belize City on Halloween in 1961. Hattie was the second or two Category Five Hurricanes from that season. Leaving some 275 people dead and some $60 million dollars in damage, Hattie devastated the Belize capital forcing government officials to move government offices and buildings inland to the city of Belmopan.

    • Hurricane Cleo–The first hurricane to strike the Miami area since Hurricane King in 1950, this 1964 storm produced wind gusts of 138 mph, and knee-deep water that produced some $125 million dollars in damage ($600 million 1990 U.S. dollars).

    • Hurricane Dora–Within a few weeks after Cleo in September, 1964, this hurricane hit the Northeastern coast of Florida at a right angle. It was the first storm ever to do this since the Great Hurricane of 1880. Dora had winds of 125 mph at St. Augustine, and produced a 12 foot storm surge.

    • Hurricane Betsy–A Category Three Hurricane that struck South Florida and Louisiana in September, 1965. It would be the last major hurricane to affect South Florida until Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

    • Hurricane Inez–Known as “The Crazy One,” Inez carved an erratic path of death and destruction from the Caribbean to Florida, and to Mexico in October, 1966. It left some 1,500 people dead, and produced millions of dollars in damage with top winds of approximately 190 mph. Minimum central pressure with Inez was recorded at 27.38 inches of Hg, which according to the Saffir-Simpson scale that came out into 1970, was equivalent to a Category Four Hurricane.

    • Hurricane Audrey–A rare early season major hurricane, this storm struck in Texas and Louisiana in June, 1957. It was the most powerful hurricane ever in the month of June, and it rapidly intensified over the Gulf of Mexico before making landfall leaving many caught off guard.

    • Hurricane Beulah–Hurricane Beulah was a Category Four Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale that Texas in 1967, and produced some 150 tornadoes after making landfall. The most ever produced on record by a tropical system. Hurricane Frances in 2004 spawned half that number, which is still quite a bit in its own right.

    • Hurricane Camille–Was the last Category Five Hurricane to make landfall over the United States before Hurricane Andrew did in August, 1992. Hurricane Camille landfall over Gulfport, Mississippi on August 18, 1969 with winds of 180 mph, and a record storm surge of 24.3 feet. It left about 250 people dead from Louisiana to Virginia, and was responsible for approximately $1.421 billion dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Celia–A powerful Category Three Hurricane that came ashore in the Corpus Christi area during the 1970 season. Sustained winds were 130 mph, which made it a strong Category Three Hurricane. Winds gusted as high as 161 mph, and ended up being the costliest storm at the time. Some other areas received wind gusts as high as 180 mph. Celia became the third major hurricane to strike the Texas Gulf Coast behind Hurricane Carla (1961) and Hurricane Beulah (1967). Today, it still ranks quite high as the National Hurricane Center places it 24th on the all time list with $453 billion dollars in damage. The silver lining in all of this was the fact that only 11 people died from the storm even though 466 people were injured, 9,000 homes were destroyed, 14,000 homes were significantly damaged, and another 41,000 suffered minor damage.

    • Hurricane Agnes–A minimal Category One Hurricane upon landfall in Apalachicola, Florida in June, 1972, it proceeded to cause devastating floods in Northeastern Pennsylvania as it combined with another low pressure system to dump heavy rains over the area. Damage from this storm was estimated to be about $2.1 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Eloise–A powerful hurricane that formed in September, 1975, Eloise was a Category Three Hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph, and gusts of up to 156 mph. It produced a 12 to 16 foot storm surge along the Florida Coast from Ft. Walton Beach to Panama City, Florida. With a minimum central pressure of 28.20 inches, Eloise was the first major hurricane to make a direct hit on this area in the 20th century, and caused some $1 billion dollars in damage as well as 21 deaths.

    • Hurricane BelleA Category Three Hurricane at one point with 120 mph winds, Belle was the second named storm of the 1976 Atlantic Hurricane Season. The storm, which earned the nickname, “Bicentennial Belle,” would eventually weaken though to just a Category One Hurricane by the time it came ashore on Long Island. Shortly afterward, it became extratropical.
    • Hurricane David–A powerful Category Five Hurricane that ripped through the Caribbean with winds of over 155 mph, it struck the coast of Georgia as a Category One Hurricane on September 4, 1979. It then came up the coast, and hit the Northeast as a Tropical Storm with winds that knocked down tree branches, and even spawned some tornadoes on Long Island. Damage estimated from this storm was $320 million dollars.

    • Hurricane Frederick–A major hurricane that slammed into Mobile Bay in Alabama with 125 mph after struggling to maintain itself over the rugged terrain of Hispanola and Cuba. The storm caused some $2.3 billion dollars in damage to portions of the Gulf Coast.
    • Hurricane Allen–The first named storm of the 1980 Atlantic Hurricane Season, Allen became a Category Five hurricane on three separate occasions, and is ranked as one of the strongest storms ever recorded in the Atlantic. Allen’s eye didn’t touch land from the time it crossed the Windward Islands including St. Lucia until it came ashore near Port Mansfield, Texas.
    • Hurricane Alicia–A strong Category Three Hurricane with winds of 125 mph, Alicia was the last hurricane to make landfall in the Galveston, Texas area back in August, 1983. Estimated damage from this storm was $2 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Elena–A very fickle storm, Elena stayed away from land in the Gulf of Mexico for about a week as upper level winds broke down above the storm. As a result, it grew from a Category One to a Category Three Hurricane with 125 mph as it came ashore in Biloxi, Mississippi in September, 1985. Estimated damage as a result of this storm was $1.25 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Gloria–Termed the Storm Of The Century at one point in its life. This Category Three Hurricane made landfall over the outer banks of North Carolina, and then moved up the East Coast of the United States on September 27, 1985. Estimated damage from this storm was $900 million dollars.

    • Hurricane Kate–An unusually strong late season hurricane, Kate was a Category Two Hurricane that struck the Port St. Joe area of the Florida Panhandle in November, 1985. It was the latest hurricane ever recorded in a season to strike that far north in Florida. It ended up causing some $300 million dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Gilbert–The most powerful storm ever recorded in the Atlantic with winds of 200 mph, and a central pressure of 26.28 inches of Hg, Gilbert came ashore in the Yucatan, and then proceeded into the Gulf of Mexico before hitting the Northern Mexican town of Matamoros with only 120 mph winds.

    • Hurricane Hugo–This Category Four Hurricane at landfall, carved a path from the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean to Charleston, South Carolina in September, 1989. At one point in its lifetime, Hugo reached Category Five intensity with 160 mph winds, and a minimum central pressure of 27.11 inches of Hg. Rapidly intensifying over the Gulf Stream, it came ashore in South Carolina with 135 mph winds. This storm ranks currently second all time in terms of estimated damage at $7 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Bob–This Category Two Hurricane was one of the more memorable storms of 1991 besides the “perfect” Halloween Gale later that year. It moved up the East Coast before making landfall in New England. Believe it or not, as of 2000, this storm was ranked 10th all time in terms of estimated damage with $1.5 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Grace–Contrary to what was said in the movie, The Perfect Storm, Grace was only a Category Two Hurricane, but it would combine with a mid-latitude cyclone to form what would be known as the “Perfect Storm” in Meteorological terms during the final days of October, 1991.

    • Hurricane Andrew–This is probably the most recent memorable hurricanes in modern history. After struggling to develop in the Atlantic, this Category Five Hurricane rapidly developed over the Gulf Stream, and devastated South Florida with 165 mph winds on August 24, 1992. It was the costliest natural disaster on record with some $30 billion dollars in damage.

    • Tropical Storm Alberto–Was a strong tropical storm at landfall in early July, 1994, but it would end up being one of the most memorable tropical storms as it proceeded to meander over Northwest Florida and Southern Georgia, and dump a tonnage of rain there. When it was all said and done, it left 31 people dead, and caused some $500 million dollars in damage.

    • Tropical Storm Beryl–Was practically a carbon copy of Alberto except for the fact that it occurred a month and a half later in August, 1994. Slightly weaker than Alberto was, Beryl had 60 mph winds, and a minimum central pressure of 29.50. Nevertheless, it dumped another 9 inches of rain on already waterlogged Tallahassee, and another 10.7 inches on Apalachicola.

    • Hurricane Gordon–One of the most erratic moving hurricanes, and still one of the most deadly in the last 20 years. Starting out in the Western Caribbean off the coast of Honduras and Nicaragua, Gordon weaved his way through the Caribbean and Florida before making its first landfall along the Outer Banks of North Carolina. It then turned southwestward again, and moved over Florida, where it finally dissipated. The storm left some $400 million dollars in damage, and 1145 people dead in November, 1994.

    • Hurricane Erin–Was one of a number of tropical storms and hurricanes in 1995. It actually made two landfalls over Florida. The first occurred on August 2nd at Vero Beach, and the second a few days later over Pensacola as a strong Category One Hurricane with 90 mph winds. Rain from this system was felt as far north as Illinois, and the storm caused some $700 million dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Luis–One of the most powerful hurricanes of the 19 storms from the 1995 Season. Pummeled the Leeward Islands as well as parts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands with 150 mph winds before turning out to sea in September, 1995. Caused approximately $2.5 billion dollars in damage and killed 17 people.

    • Hurricane Marilyn–Formed on the heels of Hurricane Luis in the Western Atlantic back in September, 1995, and brought Category Three Hurricane force winds to parts of the Leeward Islands and the Virgin Islands before turning out to sea. Caused approximately $1.5 billion dollars in damage, and left 8 people dead.

    • Hurricane Opal–This late season storm rapidly developed into a very strong Category Four Hurricane before weakening to a strong Category Three Hurricane when it came ashore near Pensacola, Florida in October, 1995. Opal ranks fifth all time in terms of damage with an estimated $3 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Roxanne–Formed in the Bay of Campeche region of Mexico in the weeks following Hurricane Opal’s landfall near Panama City, Florida. The storm was a Category Three Hurricane with sustained winds of 115 mph, and a minimum central pressure of 28.23 inches of Hg. The storm left 14 people dead and some $1.5 billion dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Bertha–The earliest hurricane to form in the Eastern Atlantic. Developed just West of the Cape Verde islands in the last week of June, 1996, and made landfall as a Category Two Hurricane over Wilimngton, North Carolina on July 12, 1996. Killed 12 people, and caused some $275,000,000 dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Fran–The most powerful hurricane to make landfall in the United States during the 1996 Hurricane Season. Made landfall over North Carolina with 115 mph winds in September of that year, and caused some $3.2 billion dollars in damage at the time. Damage estimates are even higher today.

    • Hurricane Hortense–Was a hurricane that formed during the Labor Day Weekend of the 1996 Hurricane Season. While the storm didn’t make landfall in the United States, it ravaged parts of the Caribbean including Puerto Rico with torrential rains. Damage estimates from this storm is approximately $500 million dollars. After that, it grew in strength to a Category Four Hurricane.

    • Hurricane Georges–A Classic Cape Verde Hurricane that formed in September, 1998, Georges ripped through the Leeward Islands and Caribbean with as high as 150 mph winds. It then hit the Florida Keys before making landfall in Mississippi. Left 602 people dead, and caused about $5.9 billion dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Mitch–A very powerful late season hurricane, Mitch had winds of 190 mph before making landfall in Central America. It devastated Honduras with over 75 inches of rain that spawned devastating floods and mudslides that left about 11,000 people dead in October, 1999.

    • Hurricane Floyd–Also termed Storm of the Century at one point, Floyd caused the largest peacetime evacuation in history that involved 3,000,000 people from South Florida to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina as it bore down on the Southeast coast in September, 1999. It later made landfall as a Category Three Hurricane over North Carolina, and would bring up to 30 inches of rain from North Carolina to New Jersey spawning terrible floods. Floyd ranks third all time in damage with an estimated $4.5 billion dollars in damage althogh some estimates run as high as $6 billion.

    • Hurricane Irene–Is an often forgotten storm from the 1999 Hurricane Season except for those in Florida. Forming during the middle of October that year, Irene became a Category Two Hurricane with 100 mph sustained winds, and higher gusts. The storm also produced some 10 to 20 inches of rain across South Florida while causing 8 deaths by electrocution, and $800 million dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Lenny–Known by those in the Caribbean as “El Zorito”, or “the Lefty”, Lenny was the first ever storm on record to strike the Lesser Antilles from the West in November, 1999. It was also the most powerful late-season storm on record with 150 mph winds. The storm was responsible for approximately $330 million dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Keith–Powerful Category Four Hurricane that struck the Central American country of Belize in the first week of October, 2000. Making landfall near the area of Belize City, the storm caused some two million dollars in damage, and left 11 people dead.

    • Tropical Storm Leslie–Started out as a subtropical depression in the Florida Straits, and brought some 15 to 20 inches of rain to parts of South Florida. Caused about 1,000,000 dollars in damage, and killed two people. After flooding South Florida, it gained more tropical characteristics, and became a minimal tropical storm in October, 2000.

    • Hurricane Michael–Formed in the Western Atlantic in the last weeks of October, 2000, and eventually headed northward into the Canadian Maritimes, where it brought 100 mph winds to parts of Newfoundland in Canada.

    • Tropical Storm Allison–Became the first tropical storm to get its name retired. Also was the costliest tropical storm on record as it caused some $4 to $5 billion dollars in damage. Heavy rains from the storm produced tremendous flooding in the Houston, Texas area in the first weeks of June, 2001.

    • Hurricane Iris–A very small and narrow hurricane that brought 145 mph winds to the central portion of Belize in October, 2001. The storm left some 28 people dead including tourists from Virginia, and caused millions of dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Michelle–A powerful late season hurricane, Michelle brought 135 mph winds to portions of Western Cuba and the Isle of Youth before turning east and avoiding South Florida by going out to sea in November, 2001.

    • Hurricane Isidore–A powerful Category Three Hurricane that originally developed in the Caribbean, Isidore made landfall over the Yucatan Peninsula with 125 mph, but only made landfall over Louisiana as a tropical storm in September, 2002.

    • Hurricane Lili–Another powerful hurricane that formed in the Caribbean on the heels of Isidore, Lili grew to Category Four Strength with 140 mph winds. Threatening Louisiana as a major hurricane, Lili encountered hostile upper level conditions just before landfall, and weakened to just a Category Two Hurricane when it came ashore over Louisiana in October, 2002.

    • Tropical Storm Ana–Usually nothing much would be said about a minimal strength tropical storm that emerges from a subtropical depression, but Ana, which formed over Easter Weekend in 2003, was an exception since it became the first ever recorded storm to form in April.

    • Hurricane Fabian–A hurricane that last for about a week, and a tropical system that lasted for nearly two weeks, Fabian was a Category Four Hurricane at one point with winds of 145 mph in September, 2003. Responsible for eight deaths and $300 million dollars in damage, Fabian went down as the worst hurricane to strike the tiny resort island of Bermuda since 1926.

    • Hurricane Isabel–A very rare and powerful Category Five Hurricane, Isabel underwent rapid intensification and was able to stay at the highest level a hurricane can reach for over 30 hours, which made it one of the longest lasting Category Five Storms on record. Maximum sustained winds recorded were 160 mph, but gusts were as high as 234 mph. Although it eventually weakened, Isabel came ashore along the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a Category Two Hurricane, and was responsible for 16 deaths and $3.37 billion dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Juan–Was the first hurricane to make landfall near Halifax, Nova Scotia in Canada in over a century. A Category Two Hurricane, Juan was responsible for four deaths, numerous power outages, tree damage, and went down as the most damaging hurricane in the history of Halifax.

    • Hurricane Alex–Was the first hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic Hurricane Season, and even became the season’s first major hurricane as well. Alex brushed the Outer Banks of North Carolina before turning out to sea in early August, 2004. With winds of 120 mph, it was a solid Category Three Hurricane.

    • Hurricane Charley–When it was all said and done, Hurricane Charley went down as the most devastating hurricane to hit anywhere in Florida since Hurricane Andrew in August, 1992. It also ended up being the second costliest hurricane in U.S. History behind Andrew. Charley fooled forecasters by not only rapidly intensifiying, but also making a turn to the north and east much sooner than anticipated, which spared the city of Tampa, but devastated the Port Charlotte area on August 13, 2004. Winds were as high as 145 mph, and the storm left at least 35 people dead, and $14 billion dollars in damage.

    • Hurricane Frances–Not as devastating as Charley, but still a very destructive storm due to its slow motion. Moving between 5 to 10 mph across the Florida Peninsula, Frances pounded just about all of the Sunshine state with Tropical Storm and Hurricane force winds for at least 24 hours on the Labor Day Weekend of 2004. Prior to that, the third major hurricane of the 2004 season rolled through the Bahamas with 145 mph winds. The storm left some 49 dead there while forcing the evacuation of 2.8 million people in Florida as well as knocking out power to about 6 million there as well. Frances was also responsible for producing 75 tornadoes. Final damage estimate is $9 billion dollars for the storm.

    • Hurricane Ivan–A classic Cape Verde storm that formed at unusually low latitude, Ivan rapidly developed into a Category Four Hurricane during the Labor Day Weekend of 2004 before briefly weakening to a Category Two for a period. However, as it moved through the extreme Southern Windward Islands of Barbados and Grenada, the storm strengthened back to major hurricane status, and destroyed 75 to 90 percent of all buildings on the island of Grenada. The storm then continued to re-energize, and reach Category Five status. It was the second Category Five storm in as many years after almost a five year drought following Mitch in October, 1998. It would eventually weaken somewhat, but it still made landfall near Gulf Shores, Alabama as a strong Category Three Hurricane with 130 mph winds. Moving farther inland, Ivan’s remains sparked torrential rains, flooding, and 123 tornadoes, which is second to Hurricane Beulah’s 150 in 1967. Ivan was responsible for some 124 deaths throughout the Caribbean and the Eastern United States. Final damage estimate from not only the U.S., but also the Caribbean totals $14.2 billion dollars.

    • Hurricane Jeanne–Originally not a powerful storm, Jeanne carved a path of death and destruction from Puerto Rico into Hispanola with 80 mph winds and heavy rains in September, 2004. The torrential rainfall produced floods and mudslides in Haiti, which left an estimated 1500 people dead in addition to 31 that were killed in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. The storm has also been known for its erratic motion taking an eastward turn away from the United States after going through the Bahamas, and then turning southward, and westward back toward land. Jeanne finally made landfall in the United States along the South Central Coast of Florida near Stuart with winds of 120 mph. It was the fifth storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane to impact the Sunshine State in 2004. After impacting Florida, the storm spread northward into the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast, where it produced flooding rains and tornadoes. Total death toll was estimated to be over 3,000, and the final damage total is estimated to be $6.9 billion.

    • Hurricane Dennis–Was a rare powerful July hurricane that formed in the Southeastern Caribbean a few hundred miles to the West-Northwest of Grenada on the evening of July 4th, 2005. Gradually strengthening in the days that followed, Dennis brought heavy rains to Jamaica, the Caymans, and Hispanola, but bore the brunt of its assault on Cienfuegos, Cuba with 150 mph winds. The coastal Cuban community was devastated as telephone poles and wires were knocked down. Just missing Category Five strength on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, Dennis cross the narrow, but rugged terrain of Cuba, and re-emerged in the Gulf of Mexico as a Category One storm before rapidly intensifying to a Category Four Hurricane in the early morning hours of July 10th, 2005. Dennis eventually made landfall near Pensacola, Florida on the afternoon of July 10th. So far, the death toll from the storm stands at 32, and inital damage estimates range from $1 billion to $2.5 billion.

    • Hurricane Emily–Was another rare powerful July hurricane that formed in the Atlantic on the heels of Hurricane Dennis during the week of July 10th, 2005. The storm became the most powerful hurricane ever recorded in the month of July after its winds reached a peak speed of 160 mph, and its minimum central pressure dropped to 929 mb, or 27.43 inches of Hg. This just surpassed the levels previously established by Dennis, and made it the first Category Five Hurricane of the 2005 season. Three more Cat Fives would follow. Although Emily ransacked the island of Grenada, which was still recovering from Hurricane Ivan’s impact in September, 2004, the storm mercifully spared the islands of Jamaica and the Caymans as well as weakened before making landfall in the Yucatan. The storm did regain some steam after losing its punch over the plateau of the Yucatan Peninsula, and made a final landfall as a major hurricane in Northeastern Mexico with winds of 125 mph. The storm was responsible for 64 deaths, and initially $300,000,000 dollars in damage. It also contributed to the rise in oil prices by forcing the evacuation of employees of Mexico’s primary oil company, PEMEX, from their offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico.

    • Hurricane Katrina–Started out modestly on August 23rd, 2005 in the Bahamas as a tropical wave that emerged from the remnants of a tropical depression that had been in the Caribbean. It gradually grew into the season’s eleventh named storm and fourth hurricane prior to making landfall in South Florida as a minimal hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 80 mph, and gusts up to 95 mph. After quickly crossing Southern Florida, Katrina emerged again over water in the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Florida Keys, and strengthened to the 2005 season’s third major hurricane before reorganizing into the most powerful storm in the Central Gulf since Hurricane Camille, and fourth Category Five Hurricane in three years with winds as high as 175 mph, and a minimum central pressure of 902 mb, or 26.64 inches of Hg. It became the fourth most powerful hurricane of all time ahead of Camille and behind Hurricane Gilbert (1988), the Labor Day of Hurricane of 1935, and Hurricane Allen(1980). After coming ashore as a Category One Hurricane in South Florida, Katrina struck two more times along the Gulf Coast. First in Buras, Louisiana with 140 mph winds, and then near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi with 135 mph winds. It created a 27 foot storm surge in Gulfport, Mississippi and a 22 foot storm surge in Bay St. Louis. Winds as high as 90 mph were felt as far east as Mobile, Alabama, which experienced its worst flooding in 90 years. To make matters worse, part of an oil rig broke away in Mobile Bay and hit a nearby causway possibly causing damage there. Waves as high as 48 feet happened offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Some 50 people were killed in coastal Mississippi including 30 in an apartment complex in Biloxi. Katrina even ripped off part of the roof of the Louisiana Superdome, where 10,000 people were staying in the facility, which was being used as a shelter of last resort. Extensive flooding occurred in New Orleans, which was actually spared the brunt of the storm. The 9th ward in the Crescent City was underwater as well as 80 percent of the city. People fled to their attics to escape drowning and some were rescued by helicopters and boats. So far, the latest death toll is at 1,833 (Louisiana-1582, Mississippi-170, Florida-30, Alabama-48, Georgia-2, Tennessee-1 with damage estimates now are up to $81 billion. Experts fear that the total cost for the storm could be $200 billion dollars, which would make Katrina the costliest hurricane and natural disaster in United States History.
    • Hurricane Rita–The seventeenth named storm and fifth major hurricane of the 2005 season, Rita began near the Turks and Caicos Islands as a mere tropical depression on September 17th, 2005. However, as it passed near the Florida Keys and South Florida, Rita blossomed into the season’s ninth hurricane, and brought sustained winds of Category Two strength with gusts over 100 mph. Continuing to strengthen, Hurricane Rita became a major hurricane on September 21st, 2005 as its eye experienced a 77 millibar drop in just 39 hours. The storm, which followed a similar track to the devastating Hurricane Katrina, which struck New Orleans and the Mississippi Gulf Coast on August 29th, 2005, became the third Category Five Hurricane to emerge in 2005 with 175 mph winds, and a minimum central pressure of 897 mb, or 26.49 inches of Hg. Hurricane Hunters also found wind gusts as high as 235 mph. With those statistics, Rita is not only the most powerful hurricane of 2005 so far, but it is also now third on the all time list ahead of Katrina and Hurricane Allen, and behind only Hurricane Gilbert (1988) and the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. The approach of Rita to the Western Gulf Coast, prompted the evacuation of some 2.7 million people. Poor planning led to traffic jams and cars running out of gas in Texas. A usual four hour trip from Houston to Dallas ended up taking as long as 18 hours. Prior to making landfall, the storm had already caused problems including the deaths of 107 people trying to flee the storm, flooding in Galveston, and breeches in the New Orleans levee system that was severely damaged by Hurricane Katrina a month earlier. Twenty-four of those people that died during evacuation were in a bus that had a fire and explosion on Interstate 45 south of Dallas, Texas, Rita finally made landfall in the Sabine Pass area of the Texas/Louisiana border in the early morning hours of September 24th, 2005 bringing with it wind gusts as high as 111 mph in Cameron, Louisiana, and heavy damage in Lake Charles and Vermillion Parish. Approximately 1.1 million people were initialy without power in Texas and Louisiana. Damage estimates from the storm are currently $6 billion dollars, and 54 people were directly killed by the storm including five who lost their lives in an Apartment Complex in Beaumont, Texas, a man, who lost his life when a tornado struck in Northern Mississippi, and an East Texas man, who died at the hands of a fallen tree.
    • Hurricane Stan–The eighteenth named storm, and tenth hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season started out modestly, and only was a Category One Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale when it made landfall over Southern Mexico, but the heavy rains it produced resulted in a deadly toll. Unofficially, as of this time, there have been up to 1,500 deaths in Guatemala, Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Officially, there have been 796 deaths so far throughout Mexico (71 dead) and Central America including 652 in Guatemala, and another 71 in El Salvador. In addition, the Mexican Government estimates that damage from Stan will cost approximately $1.9 billion U.S. Dollars while crop damage in El Salvador is estimated to be about $10 million. The death toll reported so far with Hurricane Stan makes this storm among the most deadly of all time, and may even surpass the tally accumulated by Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of the United States. Reasons for the high death toll is that the heavy rains from the dissipating storm produced severe flooding and mudslides. Rainfall amounts ranging between 15 to 20 inches was reported in the region.
    • Hurricane Vince–Well…Ok, you probably think that this storm was nothing special, but it actually was for several reasons. Forming in the second full week of October, 2005, Vince not only became the 20th named storm and 11th hurricane of the busy 2005 season, but it also marked the first time since the naming of storms began in 1950, that a season reached the “V” named storm. The previous mark was set in 1995 when that season reached the “T” named storm. It also set history in a couple more ways as well. Forming in the vicinity of the Madiera Islands in the Northeastern Atlantic, Hurricane Vince was the first hurricane on record to form in this region. In addition, Vince became the first tropical cyclone of any kind to make landfall in Spain as it made landfall in the Southwestern portion of the Western European country near Huelva on October 11, 2005 as a tropical depression with 35 mph winds and a minimum central pressure of 1002 mb, or 29.59 inches.
    • Hurricane Wilma–There is no question about this one being on the list. Wilma started out modestly as the 24th depression of the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season on Saturday, October 15th, and battled some ups and downs that weekend, but over time the storm would become a monster. In a span of 36 hours from Tuesday morning, October 18th to Wednesday afternoon, October 19th, the barometric pressure in the storm dropped some 102 mb to an all time low for pressure in the Atlantic Basin of 882 mb, or 26.05 inches of Hg. Maximum sustained winds increased to 175 mph. Wilma is now the strongest storm all time in the Atlantic surpassing the mark set by Hurricane Gilbert in 1988 (888 mb). It also was the 21st named storm, 12th hurricane, and 6th major hurricane of 2005, which equaled marks for storms in 1933 and hurricanes in 1969. Wilma was the fourth Category Five Hurricane to form in the season as well joining Katrina and Rita, which are also among the five or six strongest storms on record. After reaching its peak, Wilma gradually decreased in intensity to a strong Category Four with 140 mph before making its first landfall over Cozumel, Mexico on Friday, October 21, 2005. Six hours later on Friday night, Wilma slowly moved over the Yucatan as it made a second landfall in Cancun. After bringing hurricane force winds to the Yucatan for over 24 hours, the storm gradually departed, and moved out over the Southern Gulf of Mexico, where it was picked up by a trough over the Eastern United States, and carried across Florida. Moving as fast as 25 miles per hour to the Northeast, Wilma made a third landfall over Cape Romano, Florida some 22 miles to the south of Naples, and brought with it winds of Category Three strength at 125 mph. Wilma had a devastating effect on much of the East Coast of South Florida including Fort Lauderdale, which experienced its worst hurricane in 55 years. Nearby in Key Biscayne wind gusts were as high as 116 mph while they were 95 at Opa Locka Airport outside Miami. Between three and six million people were left without power in the hours after the storm. Waves as high as 45 feet came over the sea wall, and battered the capital of Havana in Cuba. Swells as high as 50 feet were also reported. The storm has already killed some 48 people in Florida (31 deaths), Mexico and throughout the Caribbean including places as far away as Haiti. Initial damage estimates are said to be $10 billion dollars.
    • Tropical Storm Alpha–Not too many tropical storms get mentioned in this list unless they are record breakers, or what we call storms of the unusual. Alpha does meet this criteria as it was the 22nd named storm to form in the Tropical Atlantic during the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane season, which broke the record previously set in 1933 with 21 storms. It also marked the first time since names have been used in the Atlantic (since 1950) that a second list of storm names was used for the same season. There have also been 12 hurricanes in 2005, which equaled the mark set in 1969, and 6 major hurricanes including three Category Five storms, which is also a record. So far, Alpha has been responsible for some 26 deaths in the Caribbean.
    • Hurricane Beta–Like Alpha, Beta is an historic storm for different reasons. Only a Category One Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale on October 28th, 2005, Beta originally developed in the extreme Southwestern Caribbean on October 26th, 2005. It became the 23rd named storm of the season, and then strengthened to the 13th hurricane of the season as well. With winds of 90 mph, and a minimum central pressure of 28.79 inches of Hg, Beta became a record breaking hurricane by placing 2005 in the history books again with the most hurricanes in a season. 2005 broke the previous mark set in 1969 with 12 hurricanes. On the morning of October 29th, Beta strengthened to its peak intensity as a major hurricane with 115 mph winds and a minimum central pressure of 28.35 inches of Hg. making it the seventh major hurricane of the 2005 season. That tied the season for second all time for most major hurricanes with 1961, which also had seven major storms. 1950 had the most major hurricanes with eight. The storm would finally make landfall in Nicaragua some 50 miles to the north of Bluefields on October 29th.
    • Hurricane Dean–The fourth named storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season not only became the first hurricane, but also the first major hurricane of that season. Forming in the Eastern Atlantic on August 13th, it was the first real Cape Verde storm of 2007. Gradually strengthening, Dean grew to have maximum sustained winds as high as 165 miles per hour with gusts up to 200 miles per hour, which classified it as a Category Five Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Its minimum pressure dropped as low as 906 millibars, or 26.75 inches of Hg (Mercury), which was stronger than Hurricane Ivan back in September 2004, and right behind hurricanes Camille (1969) and Mitch (1998) among the all time most powerful storms recorded in the Atlantic. Dean also became the third most intense hurricane to make landfall in the Atlantic Basin behind the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, and Hurricane Gilbert. Following a similar track to that of both Ivan in 2004 and Gilbert in 1988, Dean moved through the central portion of the Lesser Antilles including Dominica and Martinique, then moved south of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Hispaniola before battering the island nation of Jamaica as its eye just brushed its southermost point. The storm also bypassed the Cayman Island chain before coming ashore in the Yucatan Peninsula near the towns of Costa Maya and Majahual, which is 40 miles to the East-Northeast of Chetumal at 4:30 PM EDT on August 21, 2007. After being over the Yucatan for about twelve hours, the storm re-emerged in the Bay of Campeche as a minimal hurricane, but gradually re-strengthened to a Category Two storm with 100 mph winds when it made a second landfall along the Mexican coastline in the early afternoon of August 22, 2007 near Gutierrez Zamora some 40 miles South-Southeast of Tuxpan. The latest death toll has the storm leaving behind forty-five people dead including twenty-five in Mexico, and twenty throughout the Caribbean including nine in Haiti, six in the Dominican Republic, two in Dominica, two in Jamaica, and one in St. Lucia. The storm has so far caused some $2 billion in damage including a battering of the oil fields for the Mexican national oil company, PEMEX, and shutting down a plant run in Jamaica by Pittsburgh based Aluminum producer, Alcoa.
    • Hurricane Felix–The fifth named storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season not only became the second hurricane, and major hurricane of that season, but also the season’s second Category Five Hurricane. Forming over two weeks after Hurricane Dean in the Eastern Atlantic on August 31st, it was the second Cape Verde storm of 2007. Rapidly strengthening in the very warm waters of the Southern Caribbean during the Labor Day Weekend, Felix grew to have maximum sustained winds as high as 165 miles per hour with gusts up to 200 miles per hour, which classified it as a Category Five Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. After the storm experienced a fall of 78 millibars in 52 hours, Felix’s minimum pressure dropped as low as 929 millibars, or 27.43 inches of Hg (Mercury) which was stronger as Hurricane Michelle from late October, 2001 and as strong as Hurricane Emily from July, 2005 among the all time most powerful storms recorded in the Atlantic. Its pressure drop is second all time to Hurricane Wilma from October 2005, which was 83 millibars in 12 hours, and ahead of Hurricane Allen (1980). Following a similar track to that of both Ivan in 2004 and Emily in 2005, Felix moved through the southern Windwards including Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and their dependencies, then moved well south of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Hispaniola before threatening the usually unscathed ABC islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao in the Nertherlands Antilles. The storm eventually bypassed Jamaica and the Caymans as well as the Colombian enclave of Isla de Providencia before coming ashore on the Northern Coast of Nicaragua near the city of Cabo Gracias A Dios as a Category Five Hurricane with sustained winds of 160 miles per hour, and a minimum central pressure of 935 millibars, or 27.61 inches. The storm then proceeded to cross Central America with heavy rains that produced flooding and mudslides in interior portions of Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, and the Chiapas region of Southern Mexico. As of now, Felix is responsible for 130 deaths along coastal Nicaragua. Prior to landfall, Felix had reintensified into a Cat Five storm after weakening to a minimal Category Four storm with 135 mile per hour winds, and 160 mile per hour gusts late Sunday, September 2nd.
    • Hurricane Humberto–Putting this storm on the list is debatable. However, Hurricane Humberto from the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season is significant for several reasons. First, it was a storm that went from depression status to a Category One Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale with 85 mile per hour winds over a span of just 14 hours. In addition, the storm’s formation in the oil platform rich area of the Western Gulf of Mexico pushed oil prices up to over $80 per barrel. Finally, and most significantly, Humberto’s landfall was the first landfall by an Atlantic Hurricane along the U.S. coastline since Hurricane Wilma back in October 2005. The storm crossed the Texas shoreline near High Point, Texas, and peaked at 85 mile per hour winds, 105 mile per hour wind gusts, and a barometric pressure as low as 29.12 inches of Hg (Mercury), or 986 millibars. The storm left approximately $500 million dollars in damage in Texas and Louisiana.
    • Hurricane Noel–Like Humberto, it was a minimal storm, but this Category One Hurricane was the deadliest and most costly hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season. The storm, which formed 185 miles South-Southeast of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti left some 163 people dead as well as 59 missing. In addition, Noel left behind some $742 million in damages including $500 million on the island of Cuba alone. Maximum sustained winds were 80 miles per hour with gusts up to 95 miles per hour. Minimum central pressure dropped to 28.94 inches, or 980 millibars.
    • Tropical Storm Fay–The storm was the first in a series of four storms to affect the United States over a span of a month. This one was the weakest of the four, but it did cause its share of problems with torrential rains, especially across Florida. Flooding was extensive in East Central Florida including Brevard county. In that county, some 15,000 homes were flooded and another 93,000 were left without power from the gusty winds. Areas that were hit harder were more rural. The storm also wreaked havoc in Hispaniola where it interacted with the mountainous terrain there producing torrential rains. Thankfully, there were only 13 direct and eight indirect deaths from the storm in Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Florida. The storm caused some $560 million dollars in damage including $195 million in Florida, $25 million in Georgia, and another $25 million in Alabama.
    • Hurricane Gustav–Almost three years to the day that Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Gulf Coast, Gustav emerged in the Caribbean where it pounded Western Cuba before moving into the Gulf, and giving another scare to residents in Louisiana and Mississippi. The storm strengthened to near Category Five strength with 155 mile per hour winds. Barometric pressure in the eye of the storm dropped to 27.79 inches of Hg, or about 941 millibars. The storm made six total landfalls including four as a hurricane. Gustav moved over the Isle of Youth near Cuba with winds of 145 miles per hour. It made another landfall in Cuba near Los Palacios with 155 mile per hour winds. The storm eventually came ashore along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. near Cocodrie, Louisiana with winds of Category Two strength of 105 miles per hour. Gustav left some 153 people dead and approximately $4.3 billion in damage.
    • Hurricane Hanna–Formed on the heels of Hurricane Gustav, but didn’t have the same punch of her predecessor. Peaking at moderate Category One strength with 85 mile per hour winds. However, it still caused a great deal of death and destruction in the Caribbean. The storm took a track that eventually took it up the Eastern Seaboard during the weekend after Labor Day. Hanna was briefly a hurricane when it was over the Caicos Islands. It made a United States landfall as a tropical storm over the border between North and South Carolina. The storm was a major rainmaker bringing torrential rains to Haiti, where nearly 800 people were killed by flooding from the storm. Hanna eventually impacted the Garden State, where it actually strengthend for a while to have 55 mile per hour winds near Atlantic City. It dumped torrential rains on New Jersey along with gusty winds. In total, the storm caused some $160 million in damage.
    • Hurricane Ike–This storm was the most significant of the 2008 Atlantic Hurricane Season. It was the first big storm to make landfall in Galveston, Texas since Hurricane Alicia in 1983. The storm is also the third costliest storm in U.S. history with estimates between 25 and 29 billion dollars. Only Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Andrew (1992) were more devastating. The storm peaked at Category Four strength with 145 mile per hour winds and a minimum central pressure of 27.61 inches of Hg, or 935 millibars. When it came ashore at Galveston, Ike had winds of 110 miles per hour, and a minimum central pressure of 950 millibars, or 28.05 inches of Hg. The hurricane made several landfalls including two in Cuba, and one in the Bahamas before coming ashore in Texas. After blowing through Galveston, Ike wasn’t finished as its remnants moved into the Midwest and Ohio Valley. There, at least 28 direct and indirect deaths were reported in Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. In total, Ike left 103 people dead. In Ohio, the storm rivaled the Super Outbreak of 1974 as the costliest natural disaster in state history with $1.1 billion in damage. The remnants of Ike even made an impact on Canada where 50 mile per hour winds downed power lines in Southeastern Ontario and Quebec.
    • Hurricane Paloma–Was the last named storm and hurricane of the 2008 season. Affecting the Western Caribbean, Paloma became the second strongest hurricane on record in the Atlantic during the month of November behind Hurricane Lenny (1999). The storm peaked at Category Four strength with 145 mile per hour winds and a minimum central pressure of 27.88 inches of Hg, or about 944 millibars. Paloma affected the Cayman Islands and Western Cuba, where it made two landfalls near Santa Cruz del Sur and Camaguey. Maximum sustained winds at landfall were 85 knots or 100 miles per hour while minimum central pressure was 970 millibars, or 28.64 inches of Hg. While the storm was not blamed directly or indirectly for any deaths, it did cause $15 to $20 million dollars in damage in the Caymans with the heaviest damage there to Little Cayman and Cayman Brac. Cuba suffered some $300 million in damage with over 12,000 homes damaged, and another 1,500 destroyed.
    • Hurricane Igor–A vast and powerful Cape Verde storm, Igor eventually became the strongest hurricane of the 2010 season. At peak intensity, Igor was a strong Category Four storm on the cusp of Cat Five intensity with sustained winds of 155 miles per hour. The storm went through several flucutations in intensity thanks to eyewall replacement cycles, but remained resilient. Eventually made landfall in Bermuda as a Category One hurricane before slamming into Newfoundland as a stronger storm, which turned out to be the most devastating in that Canadian province’s history. At one point, Igor had a wind field that was 740 nautical miles across according to a report filed on it by the National Hurricane Center. The storm lasted 15 days, and had a minimum central pressure of 924 millibars, or 27.29 inches of Hg. Three people were killed either directly or indirectly by the storm, which also caused approximately $200 million dollars in damage in Newfoundland. Igor’s name was retired in 2011, and replaced by Ian for the 2016 season.
    • Hurricane Irene–The ninth named storm of the 2011 Atlantic Hurricane Season was the only storm to be retired from that season. It was a major hurricane that fell just shy of Category Four intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Irene was the first landfalling hurricane in the United States since 2008 when Hurricane Ike crashed into Galveston. The storm lashed the Bahamas before taking aim on the East Coast of the United States. Irene put New York City under a Hurricane Warning for the first time since 1985. The storm was the only the third hurricane to make landfall in New Jersey, and the first to make two landfalls there. The storm was the first to cross New York City since 1893. NYC had to shut down the subway system for the first time in that city’s history. Hurricane Irene would be remembered for the tremendous flooding it caused in New York, New Jersey, and Vermont. Approximately 65 million people were affected by the storm. A total of 21 people were killed across 8 different states. Pressure dropped to 970 millibars or 28.63 inches of Hg, which is a record for South Plainfield, New Jersey. Irene also dumped 5.34 inches in Northwestern Middlesex County adding to an already waterlogged August rainfall total. The storm also affected the Outer Banks of North Carolina, where it made its first landfall on August 26th. In the Tar-Heel State, some 225 roads and 21 bridges were shut down while two piers were destroyed. Initial insurance estimates had Irene causing some $10 billion dollars in damage while power companies guessed that approximately 4.5 million people were without power from the storm. Flooding and downed trees closed roads in Delaware; Tornado caused damage in the city of Lewes. Downed trees and power lines along with flooding closed about 200 roads in parts of Maryland. Widespread flooding, storm surge of up to 8 feet in Norfolk, and 11 inches of rain in Suffolk in Virginia. 
    • Tropical Storm Lee–Was not a powerful storm, but it was a tremendous rain maker, especially by the time it got into the Mid-Atlantic, where its remnants dumped torrential rains on the Susquehanna Valley region of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Places such as Binghamton (New York), Scranton (Pennsylvania), Wilkes-Barre (Pennsylvania), and many towns and villages along the long flowing river, experience historic flooding. New Jersey wasn’t spared either with some downpours from the outer fringes of what was left of Lee adding almost another five inches of rain to areas of the Garden State that didn’t need it.

    • Hurricane Ernesto–The fifth named storm of the 2012 Atlantic Hurricane Season was not particularly a powerful, deadly, or devastating storm. However, it was the first hurricane to make landfdall anywhere in the Atlantic Basin, and it had the unique distinction of being a rare Atlantic storm that crossed Mexico to become a system in the Eastern Pacific (Tropical Storm Hector). Peak intensity with Ernesto was only 85 mile per hour winds as it lashed much of the Southern Yucatan.
    • Hurricane Isaac–The ninth named storm and fourth hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic Hurricane season was a much more devastating storm than its Category One storm stats would suggest. Even though it had only maximum sustained winds of 80 miles per hour, its size, low pressure, and duration, made it a relentless storm that pummeled the Northern Gulf coast from Louisiana eastward to the extreme Western Florida Panhandle. The storm even generated feeder bands that produced storms that dumped over 5 inches of rain in South Carolina, hundreds of miles away from the storm’s center. Barometric pressure bottomed out at 968 millibars, which was more characteristic of a Category Two Hurricane. The storm made impacts across the Caribbean in Hispaniola and Cuba before finally becoming a hurricane prior to making two landfalls in Louisiana. Isaac generated impressive storm surge totals for a Category One storm including 11 feet above normal just outside of New Orleans. Issac was a slow mover with a forward motion of only 5 to 6 miles per hour across Louisiana. After making landfall, the storm only moved some 60 miles over a span of 24 hours.
    • Hurricane Sandy–Also known as Superstorm Sandy, this hurricane did strengthen to a Category Three Hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 115 miles per hour prior to its first landfall in Cuba. At the height of its powers, Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm winds extend some 1,000 miles from its center of circulation, and its entire diameter encompassed some 2,000 miles. Minimum central pressure dropped to 940 millibars, which wound up being the lowest pressure ever recorded north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The storm, which originated in the Southwestern Caribbean near Jamaica, and produced a variety of weather including: high winds, rain, waves, storm surge, tornadoes, and even blizzard conditions, would make its biggest impact to the Mid-Atlantic as it moved up the Eastern Seaboard, and then made a dramatic and unprecedented left turn into the Jersey Shore near Atlantic City. Besides making this rare left turn into New Jersey, the storm, which began undergoing a transition to an extratropical system, re-energized to have winds of 90 miles per hour just hours before coming ashore. Once it came inland over the Garden State, Sandy produced strong winds of up to 70 miles per hour at Greg’s Weather Center in South Plainfield, which uprooted trees, downed power poles and power lines, smashed traffic lights, and damaged windows and store signs. At the coast in South Amboy, a record storm surge that was as high as 13.3 feet at Sandy Hook and King’s Point in New York, destroyed vegetation, brought boats and ships ashore, ripped up walkways, tore down fences, and wiped out some nearby homes. Down the coast in the Union Beach section of Hazlet, many homes and businesses were wiped clean. Nearby towns of Keyport and Keansburg also experienced significant damage. Further to the north, a record surge of 13.88 feet occurred in New York Harbor, and produced flooding in Lower Manhattan and Hoboken. Significant flooding also occurred in the area of the Hackensack River including towns: Hackensack, South Hackensack, Little Ferry, and Moonachie. Superstorm Sandy caused power failures in 17 states and originally left some 8.2 million people without power. The storm impacted weather in West Virginia and as far west as Lake Michigan, where waves rose as high as 20.3 feet. An estimated total of 60 million people were affected by the storm, and 33 were left dead in the United States. Another 69 were killed in the Caribbean for a death toll of 102. Of those dead in the United States: 18 were killed in New York including 10 in New York City, 6 people were killed in New Jersey, and 4 were killed in Pennsylvania.

    • Hurricane Humberto–Was the first of two hurricanes in 2013 after a very busy 2012 season. It didn’t become a hurricane until the early morning hours of September 11th. Humberto’s formation near mid-September was the latest a hurricane had formed during the active cycle that had started in 1995. The storm didn’t cause any damage or casualties as it trekked through the Eastern and Central Atlantic affecting the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores. Maximum sustained winds topped out at 90 miles per hour while minimum central pressure dropped to 979 millibars, or 28.91 inches.

    • Hurricane Ingrid–Was the one storm retired from the 2013 season. It only grew to be a Category One Hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 75 knots or 85 miles per hour with a minimum central pressure of 983 millibars, or 29.03 inches of Hg. However, this storm managed to become a potent and deadly storm thanks to the tremendous amounts of rain it produced. According to the National Hurricane Center, Ingrid dumped 20.11 inches of rain in Tuxpan, Mexico as well as 14.46 inches at La Pesca, and 19.38 inches at Paso de Molina. Only 32 deaths were attributed to the storm in Mexico, and damage was estimated to be as high as $230 million.

    • Hurricane Edouard–Became not only the first major hurricane in the Atlantic in 2014, but also since Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. The storm strengthened to have maximum sustained winds of 120 miles per hour, and a minumum central pressure of 955 millibars, or 28.20 inches of Hg. While the storm was so powerful, it stayed away from land as it traveled around the Eastern and Central Atlantic from about several hundred miles to the west of the Cape Verde Islands to about several miles to the west of the Azores. No deaths or damage were attributed to this storm, but it ended nearly a two year drought of major hurricanes in the Atlantic.

    • Hurricane Fay–Was a short lived October 2014 hurricane that lasted only four days, but became the first hurricane to make landfall over the island of Bermuda since 1987 when Emily came ashore there. The storm peaked at 80 mile per hour winds and 983 millibars or 29.03 inches of Hg. The storm produced some 14 inches of rain on the island, downed utlity poles and trees, and street signs. Approximately 27,000 people were left without power on the island, and original estimates of $3.8 million in damage.

 

    • Hurricane GonzaloA storm that was fast on the heels of Hurricane Fay in October 2014, Gonzalo developed in the Western Atlantic to the East of the Lesser Antilles, and grew to be a strong Category Two Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale when it came through Bermuda. At peak intensity, Hurricane Gonzalo had maximum sustained winds of 125 miles per hour with a minimum central pressure of 940 millibars or approximately 27.76 inches of Hg (Mercury). The storm was responsible for three deaths in the Leeward Islands, but none in Bermuda. Gonzalo left approximately $200 to $400 million in damage on Bermuda.

 

    • Hurricane JoaquinThe most powerful storm in the Tropical Atlantic during the 2015 season, Joaquin was a Category Four Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale with peak sustained winds of 135 miles per hour and a minimum central pressure of 931 millibars or E27.49 inches of Hg. The hurricane hammered the Bahamas island chain with Crooked Islands, Long Cay, Acklins Island, Long Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Mayaguana, and Exuma. Storm surge was as high as 12 to 15 feet in Rum Cay, Crooked Island, and Acklins. There was also anywhere from 5 to 10 inches in the Central and Southeastern Bahamas. The Turks and Caicos islands were also affected as well as Haiti, Cuba, and Bermuda. The storm also combined with another low pressure system in the Eastern United States to produce significant flooding in South Carolina, and heavy rains and nor’easter like conditions as far north as New Jersey. Charleston Airport in South Carolina repoorted a one day rainfall total of 11.50 inches on October 3rd, and a four day total of 17.29 inches over the first four days of October. The storm left 34 people dead including thirty-three on the El Faro, a ship that was sunk by the storm, and caused some $60 million in damage in the Bahamas.

 

    • Hurricane PatriciaThis was a powerful storm in the Eastern Pacific, which became the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere. Intensifying to a Category Five Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale thanks in large part to the extremely warm waters of the Eastern Pacific resulting from an El Nino, Patricia had maximum sustained winds of 185 miles per hour with gusts well over 200 miles per hour while its minimum central pressure dipped to 872 millibars, or approximately 25.75 inches of Hg (Mercury). The strongest storm prior to that was Hurricane Wilma in the Atlantic in October 2005, which had a lowest pressure of 882 millibars, or 26.05 inches of Hg. The storm eventually came ashore in the sparsely populated region of Southwestern Mexico and left six people dead, and caused some $325 million dollars in damage.

 

    • Hurricane MatthewWas the 13th named storm of the 2016 Atlantic Hurricane Season, and it lasted some 11 days from late in September into early October as it reached Category Five strength on the Saffir-Simpson Scale and became the deadliest storm in the Atlantic Basin since Hurricane Stan in 2005. Matthew was responsible for 585 total deaths: 546 in Haiti, 34 in the United States, 4 in the Dominican Republic, and one in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Matthew’s peak winds reached 165 mph while its minimum central pressure dropped to 934 millibars or 27.58 inches of Hg.

 

    • Hurricane OttoAffected Southern Nicaragua and Costa Rica from November 20-26, 2016. Otto was the first hurricane to ever affect Costa Rica. Otto was also the latest hurricane to form in the Caribbean Sea. It was also the southernmost hurricane landfall in Central America.

Otto’s peak intensity was at 115 mile per hour winds and a minimum central pressure of 975 millibars, or 28.79 inches. The storm was repsonsible for 18 direct deaths in Central America, and an estimated $15 million in damage to Costa Rica’s coffee industry. 

  • Hurricane HarveyBecame the first major hurricane in almost 12 years to make landfall in the United States, and the strongest Category Four system to make landfall in Texas since Hurricane Carla back in 1961. Harvey was a system that originated off the West African Coast and stayed far to the south before moving into the Winward Islands as a minimal tropical storm. After Harvey went into the Central Caribbean, it dissipated into the open wave. Its remnants then crossed over land into the Yucatan Peninsula. Harvey’s remains moved back out over the open waters of the Gulf of Mexico, where it rapidly intensified into the strongest storm to date in the 2017 season. Harvey became a Category Four Hurricane with 130 mph winds and a minimum central pressure of 938 millibars, or 27.70 inches of Hg when it came ashore near Rockport, Texas on August 25, 2017. The storm remained a hurricane for 15 hours, and a tropical storm for about 48 hours. Harvey produced tremendous rainfall amounts in the Houston area. When it is all said and done, there could be as much as 50 inches of rain in portions of Southeastern Texas.

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Related :

Extreme Weather Related :


THE “Blizzard Of Oz” That Wasn’t Meant To Be

Blizzard of Oz.jpg

Australian snowfields rejoice after ‘Blizzard of Oz’ turns slopes into winter wonderland

via ABC.net.au

It’s been dubbed “the Blizzard of Oz”, and powder hounds could not be happier.

Australia’s ski resorts in the Snowy Mountains, in New South Wales, and Victoria’s Alpine National Park were covered with the white stuff this morning after both reported the best falls of the season at the weekend.

More than 1.15 metres of snow has been dumped at Thredbo from Friday morning to 6:00am today.

Blizzard of Oz1.jpgPHOTO: More than 1.15 metres of snow has been dumped at Thredbo. (Instagram: @_carlyt) Blizzard of Oz2.jpg

PHOTO: Mt Hotham, in Victoria’s Alpine National Park, looked more like Europe at the weekend. (Instagram: @sarahwhite2017)Blizzard of Oz3.jpgPHOTO: The snow at Falls Creek. (Instagram: @fallscreek)

Australian snowfields rejoice after ‘Blizzard of Oz’ turns slopes into winter wonderland – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
•••

BUT, wasn’t ‘snowfall’ meant to be “a very rare and exciting event.” And, that “Children just aren’t going to know what snow is.” ?

Those expert predictions made back in 2000 by esteemed climatologist Dr David Viner of the UK’s CRU (Climate Research Unit):

From the Independent’s most cited article: “Snowfalls are now just a thing of the past” by Charles Onians:

However, the warming is so far manifesting itself more in winters which are less cold than in much hotter summers. According to Dr David Viner, a senior research scientist at the climatic research unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia,within a few years winter snowfall will become “a very rare and exciting event”.

“Children just aren’t going to know what snow is,” he said.

THE Independent has since removed the article! The page used to look like this:

snowfall-thing-of-the-past-404

The original article:

snowfall-thing-of-the-past-original

Link now boots back to their homepage.

Our friends at WUWT have preserved the entire article as a PDF for posterity:

Snowfalls are now just a thing of the past – The Independent (PDF)

In fairness, perhaps the good Dr Viner was colluding consulting with the virtuous partners of climate catastrophe expertise – the UN IPCC who, as well, predicted diminished snowfalls as human CO2 increased…

ipcc-less-snow

IPCC Third Assessment Report – Climate Change 2001 – Complete online versions | GRID-Arendal – Publications – Other

warmer-winters-ipcc

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Australia’s “premier” scientific government organisation, the (warmist) CSIRO, jumped on the “end of snow” bandwagon in August 2003:

Simulations of future snow conditions in the Australian alpine regions were prepared for the years 2020 and 2050…

Conclusion:

The low impact scenario for 2020 has a minor impact on snow conditions. Average season lengths are reduced by around five days. Reductions in peak depths are usually less than 10%, but can be larger at lower sites (e.g. Mt Baw Baw and Wellington High Plains).

The high impact scenario for 2020 leads to reductions of 30-40 days in average season lengths.  At higher sites such as Mt Hotham, this can represent reductions in season duration of about 25%, but at lower sites such as Mt Baw Baw the reduction can be more significant (up to 60%)…

We have very high confidence (at least 95%) that the low impact scenarios will be exceeded and the high impact scenarios will not be exceeded.

https://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/73212/TheImpactofClimateChangeonSnowConditions2003.pdf 

(Page Not Found – LOL !)

In 2014, the New York Times signalled “The End of Snow”:ScreenHunter_314 Feb. 07 11.00

The End of Snow? – NYTimes.com

•••

BACK IN THE REAL WORLD

Winter Northern Hemisphere snow extent is trending upwards, and 2017 was amongst the highest on record, despite rising CO2 emissions and the “Hottest Year Evah” thing:

Screen Shot 2017-08-07 at , August 7, 4.07.56 PM

Rutgers University Climate Lab :: Global Snow Lab

AND as for the expert predictions of the CSIRO, who assured us of the end of snow by 2020/2030…

Australia’s snowfields have been overdosed by snow over the past decade.

In fact, SH snow extent is increasing as global CO2 rises – the exact opposite of what you were told by all those experts

2016 – Extended season:

screen-shot-2017-02-22-at-february-22-8-05-58-pm

Heavy snow forecast for the Australian Alps despite ski season ending a month ago

2017 – THE “Blizzard Of Oz” ! :

Blizzard of Oz4.jpg

Blizzards close in on Melbourne, floods hit South Australia | The Australian

WHEN will those expert scientists, esteemed government agencies and respected mainstream media outlets who peddle the fake global warming catastrophe, spreading scientific falsehoods with impunity, be held to account? Or at least admit they got it wrong?

That “science” certainly ain’t “settled”.

•••

UPDATE – August 8, 2017

Emergency services warn of avalanches in Victoria’s alpine region

Screen Shot 2017-08-08 at , August 8, 8.45.01 AM.png

Click to Play…

EMERGENCY services have issued an avalanche warning for Victoria’s alpine region as tourists have been urged to avoid skiing, snowboarding, or hiking in remote areas.

Warmer weather and strong wind is expected to increase the risk of avalanches at Mt Bogong, mt feathertop, Mt Buller, Mt Hotham and Falls Creek today.

Victorian alpine region: avalanche warning issued for skiers, snowboarders | Herald Sun

DO hope SMH’s (Fairfax media) resident global warming catastrophist Peter Hannam has received this alert, if he plans to visit Australia’s ski fields. The one’s that he and those expert scientists say won’t be around much longer thanks to you and your SUV…

Snowy retreat: Climate change puts Australia’s ski industry on a downhill slope

Peter Hannam Peter Hannam

August 5 – Last week’s fake news – Sydney Morning Herald

Australia’s ski resorts face the prospect of a long downhill run as a warming climate reduces snow depth, cover and duration. The industry’s ability to create artificial snow will also be challenged, scientists say.

Snowy retreat: Climate change puts Australia’s ski industry on a downhill slope

•••

UPDATE September 8 :

Perisher Ski Resorts elated with #BlizzardOfOz3…

More Than 130cm of Snow – Best in 17 years!

•••

 

Related :

CSIRO Dud-Predictions Related :

 


THE Best Of Bad Weather

IN the wake of Hurricane Harvey and in light of the predicted “mann-made” blame game seized upon by the usual climate ambulance-chasers, it’s worth having a further look at some of the extreme weather events that Mother Nature has dished up over the years in both; cold and low-CO2 climate periods. Certainly, well before humans could have had any effect on ‘climate’.

A good list of historical climate weather catastrophes was compiled by Tony Heller (aka Steve Goddard) back on his previous site Real Science in 2013…

(Goddard’s new site here)


A Few Low CO2 Natural Disasters

The world’s stupidest people (who run the US government) want you to believe that life was happy and stable in the good old days of low CO2

That leaves one thing capable of contributing to global warming – a process that reduces the amount of heat energy leaving the atmosphere. Since the earth’s energy balance remains stable without a change in an external forcing such as solar insolence (due to changes in the sun’s output or orbital changes) or an internal process turned into a forcing by some change and we see neither Milankovitch cycles, nor the sun itself are in a position to do that, we have to look to an internal change.

Only CO2 fits that need.

Little Green Footballs – Marc Morano: Courting Mendacity

1871 – Chicago Destroyed

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1871 – Wisconsin Fire

1886 – Indianola, Texas Destroyed

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1896 – St Louis Destroyed

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1900 – Galveston Destroyed

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1906 – San Francisco Destroyed

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1924 Ohio Tornado

1925 Tri-State Tornado

 Below350.org

 Below350.org

1926 – Miami Destroyed

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1927 – Mississippi Valley Flood

1927 – Vermont Flood

1931 – China Flood

1930’s – Half Of Oklahoma Fled The State

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1936 – Eastern US Flood

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1937 – Midwest Flood

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